Effects of heat stress on somatostatin and some related immune factors in the small intestine of Wenchang chicks

DOI:10.17221/69/2016-CJASCitation:Chen Z., Jiang Y.-Y., Zhou Y.-W., Liang C., Xie L.-J. (2017): Effects of heat stress on somatostatin and some related immune factors in the small intestine of Wenchang chicks. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 62: 446-455.
download PDF

To investigate the effects of heat stress (HS) on developmental changes in immune functions of chick intestinal mucosa, one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned into control check (CK) and heat-stressed (HS) groups and raised under indoor temperature. The chicks in HS group were subjected to HS at 40 ± 0.5°C from 12:00 to14:00 h every day. Intestinal mucosa samples were collected weekly during 6 weeks, and the effects of HS on somatostatin and its related immune factors were examined using immunohistochemical, physiological, and biochemical methods. The results showed that HS obviously increased the amount and integral optical density of somatostatin positive cells, somatostatin content, as well as IFN-γ and IL-2 levels in the small intestine, and these increases reached statistical significance in some intestinal segments (P < 0.05). In addition, IgG, IgA, and IgM levels fluctuated in different intestinal segments and their levels in jejunum, duodenum, and ileum in 6-week-old chicks were significantly lower in HS group than in CK group (P < 0.05). The contents of immune-related enzymes also fluctuated, but the activities of acid phosphatase, lysozyme, and glutathione reductase in duodenum and jejunum were lower in 6-week-old chicks in HS group than in CK group, some reaching statistical significance (P < 0.05). Growth hormone (GH) and HSP70 contents in multiple intestinal segments in 6-week-old chicks were significantly higher in HS group than in CK group (P < 0.05). The results indicate that (1) HS could increase the expression and secretion of somatostatin and affect the normal development of immunoglobulins, cytokines, and immune-related enzymes in the small intestine, and thereby impact the chicks’ intestine immune function; (2) GH and HSP70 in the small intestine were involved in self-protection mechanisms against HS-induced intestinal injury and somatostatin regulation might be one of the important components.

Arnaud Claire, Joyeux Marie, Garrel Catherine, Godin-Ribuot Diane, Demenge Pierre, Ribuot Christophe (2002): Free-radical production triggered by hyperthermia contributes to heat stress-induced cardioprotection in isolated rat hearts. British Journal of Pharmacology, 135, 1776-1782 doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704619
BATEMAN ANDREW, SINGH AVA, KRAL THOMAS, SOLOMON SAMUEL (1989): The Immune-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis*. Endocrine Reviews, 10, 92-112 doi:10.1210/edrv-10-1-92
Bernardini Chiara, Fantinati Paolo, Zannoni Augusta, Forni Monica, Tamanini Carlo, Bacci Maria Laura (2004): Expression of HSP70/HSC70 in swine blastocysts: Effects of oxidative and thermal stress. Molecular Reproduction and Development, 69, 303-307 doi:10.1002/mrd.20143
Boyman Onur, Sprent Jonathan (2012): The role of interleukin-2 during homeostasis and activation of the immune system. Nature Reviews Immunology, , - doi:10.1038/nri3156
Chen Z., Xie J., Wang B., Tang J. (2014): Effect of  -aminobutyric acid on digestive enzymes, absorption function, and immune function of intestinal mucosa in heat-stressed chicken. Poultry Science, 93, 2490-2500 doi:10.3382/ps.2013-03398
Chen Z., Xie J., Hu M.Y., Tang J., Shao Z.F., Li M.H. (2015a): Protective effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the small intestinal mucosa in heat-stressed Wenchang chicken. Journal of Animal and Plant Science, 25, 78–87.
Chen Z., Zhang J.R., Zhou Y.W., Liang C., Jiang Y.Y. (2015b): Effect of heat stress on the pituitary and testicular development of Wenchang chicks. Archives of Animal Breeding, 58, 373–378.
Chrousos G.P. (1992): Regulation and dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, the corticotrophin-releasing hormone perspective. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, 21, 833–858.
Deng Z.P., Zhou Z.X., Junzo Y. (1996): Immunohistochemical localization of endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract of goose. Acta Anatomica Sinica, 27, 314–317.
Elia Antonia Concetta, Anastasi Valeria, Dörr Ambrosius Josef Martin (2006): Hepatic antioxidant enzymes and total glutathione of Cyprinus carpio exposed to three disinfectants, chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid, for superficial water potabilization. Chemosphere, 64, 1633-1641 doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.01.035
Gu X. H., Hao Y., Wang X. L. (2012): Overexpression of heat shock protein 70 and its relationship to intestine under acute heat stress in broilers: 2. Intestinal oxidative stress. Poultry Science, 91, 790-799 doi:10.3382/ps.2011-01628
Gulmez N., Nazli M., Aslan S., Liman N. (2003): Immunolocalisation of serotonin, gastrin, somatostatin and glucagon in entero-endocrine cells of the goose (Anser anser). Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 51, 439-449 doi:10.1556/AVet.51.2003.4.2
Ishihara Shunji, Hassan Sazzad, Kinoshita Yoshikazu, Moriyama Nobuyuki, Fukuda Ryo, Maekawa Toru, Okada Akihiko, Chiba Tsutomu (1999): Growth inhibitory effects of somatostatin on human leukemia cell lines mediated by somatostatin receptor subtype 1. Peptides, 20, 313-318 doi:10.1016/S0196-9781(99)00037-6
Klein Sarah E., Sheridan Mark A. (2008): Somatostatin signaling and the regulation of growth and metabolism in fish. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 286, 148-154 doi:10.1016/j.mce.2007.08.010
Krusteva Elisaveta, Hristova Svetlomira, Damyanov Danail, Bogdanov Assen, Altaparmakov Ivan, Pacelli Edoardo (1997): Clinical study of the effect of the preparation deodan on leukopenia, induced by cytostatics. International Journal of Immunopharmacology, 19, 487-492 doi:10.1016/S0192-0561(97)00080-5
Li L.X. (2011): Immunohistochemical localization of somatostatin cells in gastrointestinal tract of Phasianus colchicas. Journal of Anhui Agricultural Science, 39, 18684–18686.
Li L.X., An S.C. (2009): Immunohistochemical localization of endocrine cells in the digestive tract of Chrysolophus pictus. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 44, 24–32.
Li P., He M., Yuan Y.F., Yang J., Guo L.T. (2013): Immunohistochemistry of somatostatin endocrine cells in digestive tract of Chinese Yellow Quail. Journal of Northwest A & F University, 41, 13–18.
Liu L.R., Yang K.L., Hua J., Wang X.X., Liu T.T. (2013): Antimicrobial peptides: effects on small intestinal mucosal morphology and immune active cell number in Hy-Line Brown young roosters. Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 25, 190–197.
Niu Z. Y., Liu F. Z., Yan Q. L., Li W. C. (2009): Effects of different levels of vitamin E on growth performance and immune responses of broilers under heat stress. Poultry Science, 88, 2101-2107 doi:10.3382/ps.2009-00220
NRC (1994): Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th Ed. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Quinteiro-Filho W. M., Ribeiro A., Ferraz-de-Paula V., Pinheiro M. L., Sakai M., Sa L. R. M., Ferreira A. J. P., Palermo-Neto J. (2010): Heat stress impairs performance parameters, induces intestinal injury, and decreases macrophage activity in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 89, 1905-1914 doi:10.3382/ps.2010-00812
Santos Regiane R., Awati Ajay, Roubos-van den Hil Petra J., Tersteeg-Zijderveld Monique H. G., Koolmees Peter A., Fink-Gremmels Johanna (2015): Quantitative histo-morphometric analysis of heat-stress-related damage in the small intestines of broiler chickens. Avian Pathology, 44, 19-22 doi:10.1080/03079457.2014.988122
Schoenborn J.R., Wilson C.B. (2007): Regulation of interferon-γ during innate and adaptive immune responses. Advances in Immunology, 96, 41–101.
St-Pierre N.R., Cobanov B., Schnitkey G. (2003): Economic Losses from Heat Stress by US Livestock Industries. Journal of Dairy Science, 86, E52-E77 doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)74040-5
Virnik A.D., Skokova I.F., Vysotskaia E.P., Ivanova M.V., Iudanova T.N. (1998): Coimmobilization of proteolytic and bacteriolytic enzymes and properties of isolated materials. Prikladnaya Biokhimiya i Mikrobiologiya, 34, 157–160.
Vocadlo David J., Davies Gideon J., Laine Roger, Withers Stephen G. (2001): Catalysis by hen egg-white lysozyme proceeds via a covalent intermediate. Nature, 412, 835-838 doi:10.1038/35090602
Wang Z.J. (1984): Cellular protection in the gastrointestinal tract. Progress of Physiological Science, 15, 5–10.
Xie J.X., Gu Y., Liu Y.K., Zhao S.M., Luo B.G., Chen L.L., Wu Z.H., Zuo H.C. (2001): Effect of combination treatment with growth hormone and glutamine on intestinal mucosal absorptive function in rats with small bowel syndrome. Journal of Anatomy, 24, 231–233.
Zhu T.J., Dong G.R., Huang G.Q., Fan X.P., Liu B. (2007): The effects of somatostatin on serum interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in lipopolysaccharide-induced septic shock: experiment with rats. Chinese Medical Journal, 87, 345–347. (in Chinese)
download PDF

© 2017 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences