Exploration of natural cryoprotectants for cryopreservation of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, Burchell 1822 (Pisces: Clariidae) spermatozoa

DOI:10.17221/7906-CJASCitation:Muchlisin Z.A., Nadiah W.N., Nadiya N., Fadli N., Hendri A., Khalil M., Siti-Azizah M.N. (2015): Exploration of natural cryoprotectants for cryopreservation of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, Burchell 1822 (Pisces: Clariidae) spermatozoa. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 60: 10-15.
download PDF

Toxicity is a major limitation to successful spermatozoa cryopreservation of fish. Due to this problem, it is critical to find potential cryoprotectants which are more environmental-friendly, non-toxic, easily prepared, and available at affordable prices. Hence, the objective of the present study was to investigate several natural cryoprotectants for optimal cryopreservation of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, Burchell 1822 (Pisces: Clariidae) spermatozoa. Three natural cryoprotectants were tested – egg yolk, glucose, and honey, while DMSO was used as a control at different concentrations (5, 10, and 15%). Sperms were diluted with coconut water at a dilution level of 1 : 20 sperm to extender (v/v). Diluted sperms were kept at 4°C for 5 min, then at 0, –4, and –79°C for 5 min respectively, and stored in liquid nitrogen (–196°C) for 45 days. The cryopreserved sperms were thawed in a water bath (37°C) for 5 min and evaluated for fertilization and hatching rates. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by comparison of means using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The fertilization and hatching rates of African catfish in all cryoprotectants improved with concentration increasing from 5 to 10% but then decreased when concentration was increased to 15%. The ANOVA test showed that the differences in cryoprotectants used significantly affected fertilization and hatching rates of African catfish. Overall, the fertilization and hatching rates were higher in DMSO for all concentrations compared to other cryoprotectants. However, 10% egg yolk resulted in higher fertilization and hatching rates compared to other natural cryoprotectants. It was concluded that 10% egg yolk was the most suitable concentration for African catfish spermatozoa cryopreservation compared to other natural cryoprotectants tested.

References:
Aboagla Eiman M.-E, Terada T (2004): Effects of egg yolk during the freezing step of cryopreservation on the viability of goat spermatozoa. Theriogenology, 62, 1160-1172 doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2004.01.013
 
Adewolu Morenike A., Adeniji Comfort A., Adejobi Ademola B. (2008): Feed utilization, growth and survival of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) fingerlings cultured under different photoperiods. Aquaculture, 283, 64-67 doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.07.020
 
Anil S., Ghafari F., Zampolla T., Rawson D.M., Zhang T. (2011): Studies on cryoprotectant toxicity to zebrafish (Danio rerio) ovarian tissue fragment. CryoLetters, 32, 40–50.
 
Babiak I., Glogowski J., Luczynski M.J., Luczynski M., Demia-
 
Babiak I., Glogowski J., Luczynski M.J., Luczynski M., Demianowicz W. (1999): The effect of egg yolk, low density lipoproteins, methylxanthines and fertilization diluent on cryopreservation efficiency of northern pike (Esox lucius) spermatozoa. Theriogenology, 52, 473-479 doi:10.1016/S0093-691X(99)00144-2
 
Bozkurt Yusuf, Yavaş İlker, Yıldız Cengiz (2014): Effect of different avian egg yolk types on fertilization ability of cryopreserved common carp (Cyprinus carpio) spermatozoa. Aquaculture International, 22, 131-139 doi:10.1007/s10499-013-9728-4
 
Chao Nai-Hsien, Liao I.Chiu (2001): Cryopreservation of finfish and shellfish gametes and embryos. Aquaculture, 197, 161-189 doi:10.1016/S0044-8486(01)00586-5
 
Chao Nai-Hsien, Chao Wei-Chung, Liu Kuo-Chun, Liao I-Chiu (1987): The properties of tilapia sperm and its cryopreservation*. Journal of Fish Biology, 30, 107-118 doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1987.tb05737.x
 
Chao Nai-Hsien, Chiang Chi-Ping, Hsu Hui-Wen, Tsai Chia-Tzao, Lin Ta-Te (1994): Toxicity tolerance of oyster embryos to selected cryoprotectants. Aquatic Living Resources, 7, 99-104 doi:10.1051/alr:1994013
 
Ciereszko A., Ramseyer L., Dabrowski K. (1993): Cryopreservation of Yellow Perch Semen. The Progressive Fish-Culturist, 55, 261-264 doi:10.1577/1548-8640(1993)055<0261:COYPS>2.3.CO;2
 
El Naggar Gamal O., John George, Rezk Mahmoud A., Elwan Waheed, Yehia Mohammed (2006): Effect of varying density and water level on the spawning response of African catfish Clarias gariepinus: Implications for seed production. Aquaculture, 261, 904-907 doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.07.043
 
Fauvel C., Savoye O., Dreanno C., Cosson J., Suquet M. (1999): Characteristics of sperm of captive seabass in relation to its fertilization potential. Journal of Fish Biology, 54, 356-369 doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1999.tb00835.x
 
Gwo Jin-Chywan, Arnold Connie R. (1992): Cryopreservation of Atlantic croaker spermatozoa: Evaluation of morphological changes. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 264, 444-453 doi:10.1002/jez.1402640410
 
Jodun Wade A., King Kim, Farrell Pat, Wayman William (2007): Methanol and Egg Yolk as Cryoprotectants for Atlantic Salmon Spermatozoa. North American Journal of Aquaculture, 69, 36-40 doi:10.1577/A05-052.1
 
Lahnsteiner F., Berger B., Weismann T., Patzner R. (1996): The influence of various cryoprotectants on semen quality of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) before and after cryopreservation. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 12, 99-106 doi:10.1111/j.1439-0426.1996.tb00070.x
 
Manjunath P. (2002): Major Proteins of Bovine Seminal Plasma Bind to the Low-Density Lipoprotein Fraction of Hen's Egg Yolk. Biology of Reproduction, 67, 1250-1258 doi:10.1095/biolreprod67.4.1250
 
Mayer D.T., Lesley J.F. (1945): The factor in egg yolk affecting resistance, storage potentialities, and fertilizing capacity of mammalian spermatozoa. Journal of Animal Science, 4, 261–269.
 
Moczarski M., Koldras M. (1982): Properties of tinch Tinca tinca L. sperm and experiments with freezing it at –196°C. Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria, 12, 41–49.
 
Mostl E., Spendier H., Kotrschal K. (2001): Concentration of immunoreactive progesterone and androgens in the yolk of hens’ eggs (Gallus domesticus). Wiener Tierärztliche Monatsschrift, 88, 62–65.
 
Muchlisin Z.A., Azizah M.N. Siti (2009): Influence of cryoprotectants on abnormality and motility of baung (Mystus nemurus) spermatozoa after long-term cryopreservation. Cryobiology, 58, 166-169 doi:10.1016/j.cryobiol.2008.11.010
 
Muchlisin Z.A, Hashim R, Chong A.S.C (2004): Preliminary study on the cryopreservation of tropical bagrid catfish (Mystus nemurus) spermatozoa; the effect of extender and cryoprotectant on the motility after short-term storage. Theriogenology, 62, 25-34 doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2003.05.006
 
Muchlisin Z.A., Nadiya N., Nadiah W.N., Musman M., Siti-Azizah M.N. (2010): Preliminary study on the natural extenders for artificial breeding of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822). Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation – International Journal of the Bioflux Society, 3, 119–124.
 
Ogier de Baulny B., Le-Vern Y., Kerboeuf D., Heydorff M., Maisse G. (1996): Flow cytometric analysis of plasma membrane damages of rainbow trout and turbot frozen sperm. In: Refrigeration and Aquaculture. Proc. Conference of IIR Commission C2. Biotechnica, Bordeaux, France, 65–72.
 
Perez-Cerezales S., Martinez-Paramo S., Beirao J., Herraez M. P. (): Fertilization capacity with rainbow trout DNA-damaged sperm and embryo developmental success. Reproduction, 139, 989-997 doi:10.1530/REP-10-0037
 
Polge C. (1980): Freezing of spermatozoa. In: Ashwood-Smith M.J. and J. Farrant (eds): Low Temperature Preservation in Medicine and Biology. Pitman Medical Publishing Co. Ltd., Turnbridge Wells, UK, 45–64.
 
Rasowo Joseph, Okoth Oyoo Elijah, Ngugi Charles Chege (2007): Effects of formaldehyde, sodium chloride, potassium permanganate and hydrogen peroxide on hatch rate of African catfish Clarias gariepinus eggs. Aquaculture, 269, 271-277 doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2007.04.087
 
Sakanaka Senji, Tachibana Yumi, Ishihara Noriyuki, Raj Juneja Lekh (2004): Antioxidant activity of egg-yolk protein hydrolysates in a linoleic acid oxidation system. Food Chemistry, 86, 99-103 doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2003.08.014
 
Steyn G.J., Van Vuren J.H.J., Schoonbe H.J., Chao N.H. (1985): Preliminary investigations on the cryopreservation of Clarias gariepinus (Clariidae: Pisces) sperm. Water SA, 11, 15–18.
 
Steyn G.J., Van Vuren J.H.J. (1987): The fertilizing capacity of cryopreserved sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) sperm. Aquaculture, 63, 187-193 doi:10.1016/0044-8486(87)90070-6
 
Suquet M., Dreanno C., Fauvel C., Cosson J., Billard R. (2000): Cryopreservation of sperm in marine fish. Aquaculture Research, 31, 231-243 doi:10.1046/j.1365-2109.2000.00445.x
 
Thapliyal M., Thapliyal A., Bhatt J.P. (2011): Himalayan Aquatic Biodiversity Conservation and New Tools in Biotechnology. TransMedia Publication, Srinagar, India.
 
Tsai S., Lin C. (2009): Effect of cryoprotectant on the embryos of banded coral shrimp (Stenopus hispidus): preliminary studies to establish freezing protocols. CryoLetters, 30, 373–381.
 
Van Oordt P.G.W.J., Goos H.J.Th. (1987): The African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, a model for the study of reproductive endocrinology in teleosts. Aquaculture, 63, 15-26 doi:10.1016/0044-8486(87)90058-5
 
Van Oordt P.G.W.J., Peute J., Van Den Hurk R., Viveen W.J.A.R. (1987): Annual correlative changes in gonads and pituitary gonadotropes of feral African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Aquaculture, 63, 27-41 doi:10.1016/0044-8486(87)90059-7
 
Viveiros A.T.M., So N., Komen J. (2000): Sperm cryopreservation of African catfish, : cryoprotectants, freezing rates and sperm:egg dilution ratio. Theriogenology, 54, 1395-1408 doi:10.1016/S0093-691X(00)00462-3
 
Wachirachaikarn Anyalak, Rungsin Wikrom, Srisapoome Prapansak, Na-Nakorn Uthairat (2009): Crossing of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822), strains based on strain selection using genetic diversity data. Aquaculture, 290, 53-60 doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.01.036
 
Witte T.S., Schäfer-Somi S., Kuchar A., Möstl E., Iben C., Aurich C. (2009): Effect of hen's egg yolk on capacitation and acrosome reaction of diluted canine spermatozoa. Animal Reproduction Science, 110, 293-305 doi:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2008.01.022
 
Zar J.H. (1984): Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, USA.
 
download PDF

© 2017 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences