Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the liver, gall bladder and urogenital tract in female red-eared terrapins (Trachemys scripta elegans)

DOI:10.17221/73/2017-VETMEDCitation:Sochorcova V, Proks P, Cermakova E, Knotek Z (2017): Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the liver, gall bladder and urogenital tract in female red-eared terrapins (Trachemys scripta elegans). Veterinarni Medicina, 62: 674-680.
download PDF

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of contrast-enhanced computed tomography for organ morphology and perfusion in five captive terrapins. Native scans were performed and afterwards an iodinated non-ionic contrast media was manually administered through the jugular vein catheter. Post-contrast CT scans were taken 20 (T20), 60 (T60) and 180 (T180) seconds after the contrast medium administration. Maximum contrast enhancement of the kidneys and the liver was detected at T20 and T60, respectively. The gall bladder content, the urinary bladder content and ovarian follicles were all without contrast enhancement in all five terrapins. Gall bladder wall thickness was 0.9 mm in all terrapins. Enhancement of the gall bladder wall in post-contrast studies was considered excellent, good or poor in two terrapins, two terrapins and one terrapin, respectively, with a mean score of 1.8 ± 0.84 over all contrast studies. Enhancement of the ureters in post-contrast studies was considered excellent in all terrapins in all contrast studies. Peak aortic enhancement was reached 20 seconds after contrast medium administration with the peak enhancement of 213.5 ± 41 HU in four terrapins and 560 HU in one terrapin. Peak hepatic vein enhancement after contrast medium administration was recorded 20 and 60 seconds in two and three terrapins, respectively. In conclusion, contrast-enhanced computed tomography proved to be a valuable method for clinical examination of the liver, gall bladder, kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and ovarian follicles in red-eared terrapins.

References:
de Albuquerque Bonelli Marília, de Oliveira Daniel Capucho, Costa Lorena Adão Vescovi Séllos, Forattini Jannine Garcia, Júnior João Luiz Rossi, Leite Flaviana Lima Guião, Costa Fabiano Séllos (2013): QUANTITATIVE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY OF THE LIVER IN JUVENILE GREEN SEA TURTLES ( CHELONIA MYDAS ). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 44, 310-314 doi:10.1638/2012-0123R1.1
 
Campbell TW (2014): Clinical pathology. In: Mader DR, Divers SJ (eds): Current Therapy in Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Elsevier, St Louis. 70–92.
 
DeShaw B, Schoenfeld A, Cook RA, Haramati N (1996): Imaging of reptiles: a comparison study of various radiographic techniques. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 27, 364–370.
 
J. Divers Stephen, Papich Mark, McBride Michael, L. Stedman Nancy, Perpinan David, F. Koch Thomas, M. Hernandez Sonia, Heather Barron G., Pethel Melinda, C. Budsberg Steven (2010): Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam following intravenous and oral administration in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). American Journal of Veterinary Research, 71, 1277-1283 doi:10.2460/ajvr.71.11.1277
 
Gumpenberger M (2002): Computed tomography (CT) in chelonians. Proceedings of the 9th Annual Conference of Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians. 41–43.
 
Gumpenberger M (2011): Chelonians. In: Schwarz T, Saunders J (eds): Veterinary Computed Tomography. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford. 533–544.
 
Gumpenberger Michaela, Henninger Wolfgang (2001): The use of computed tomography in avian and reptile medicine. Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine, 10, 174-180 doi:10.1053/saep.2001.24674
 
Gumpenberger M, Filip T (2007): Computed tomography and use of intravenous contrast media in imaging chelonian kidneys. Proceedings of the 14th Annual Conference of Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians. 5.
 
Hernandez-Divers SM, Hernandez-Divers SJ (2001): Diagnostic imaging of reptiles. In Practice 23, 370–391.
 
Hernandez-Divers SJ, Lafortune M (2004): Radiology. In: McArthur S, Wilkinson R, Meyer J, Innis C, Hernandez-Divers SJ (eds): Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London. 195–212.
 
Jacobson ER (2007): Infectious Diseases and Pathology of Reptiles. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 716 pp.
 
Kiefer I, Pees M (2011): Computed tomography (CT). In: Krautwald-Junghanns ME, Pees M, Reese S, Tully T (eds): Diagnostic Imaging of Exotic Pets. Schlutersche Vrlg, Hannover. 358–367.
 
Knotek Z. (2014): Alfaxalone as an induction agent for anaesthesia in terrapins and tortoises. Veterinary Record, 175, 327-327 doi:10.1136/vr.102486
 
Knotek Z, Dorrestein GM, Knotkova Z (2008): Chronic liver disease. What we know about it? Proceedings Abstracts, 5 Congres Veterinaire International sur les animaux sauvages et exotiques. Paris March 20.–22. 2008. 33–34.
 
Mans Christoph, Drees Randi, Sladky Kurt K., Hatt Jean-Michel, Kircher Patrick R. (2013): Effects of body position and extension of the neck and extremities on lung volume measured via computed tomography in red-eared slider turtles ( Trachemys scripta elegans ). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 243, 1190-1196 doi:10.2460/javma.243.8.1190
 
Marchiori Adriano, da Silva Ieverton Cleiton Correia, de Albuquerque Bonelli Marília, de Albuquerque Zanotti Luciana Carla Rameh, Siqueira Daniel B., Zanotti Alexandre Pinheiro, Costa Fabiano Séllos (2015): USE OF COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY FOR INVESTIGATION OF HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS IN CAPTIVE CHELONOIDIS CARBONARIA (SPIX, 1824). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 46, 320-324 doi:10.1638/2014-0178R2.1
 
McArthur S (2004): Problem-solving approach to common diseases of terrestrial and semi-aquatic chelonians. In: McArthur S, Wilkinson R, Meyer J, Innis C, Hernandez-Divers S (eds): Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London. 309–377.
 
McArthur S, McLellan L, Brown S (2004): Gastrointestinal system. In: Girling SJ, Raiti P (eds): Manual of Reptiles. 2nd edn. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Quedgeley. 210–229.
 
Nardini Giordano, Di Girolamo Nicola, Leopardi Stefania, Paganelli Irene, Zaghini Anna, Origgi Francesco C, Vignoli Massimo (2014): Evaluation of liver parenchyma and perfusion using dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana) under general anesthesia. BMC Veterinary Research, 10, 112- doi:10.1186/1746-6148-10-112
 
Norton T, Cox S, Kaylor M, Hupp A, Thomas R, Nelsen S, Sladky KK (2013): Pharmacokinetics of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). Proceedings of the 33rd ISTS Symposium on sea turtle biology and conservation. February 2.–8. 2013. 20–21.
 
Rubel A, Kuoni W (1991): Radiology and imaging. In: Frye FL (ed.): Biomedical and Surgical Aspects of Captive Reptile Husbandry. 2nd edn. Krieger Publishing, Melbourne. 185–208.
 
Silverman S (2006): Diagnostic imaging. In: Mader DR (ed.): Reptile Medicine and Surgery. 2nd edn. Saunders Elsevier, St Louis. 471–489.
 
Spadola F., Barillaro G., Morici M., Nocera A., Knotek Z. (2017): The practical use of computed tomography in evaluation of shell lesions in six loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta). Veterinární Medicína, 61, 394-398 doi:10.17221/68/2015-VETMED
 
Wilkinson R, Hernandez-Divers S, Lafortune M, Calvert I, Gumpenberger M, McArthur S (2004): Diagnostic imaging. In: McArthur S, Wilkinson R, Meyer J, Innis C, Hernandez-Divers S (eds): Medicine and Surgery of Tortoises and Turtles. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London. 187–238.
 
Wyneken J (2014): Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In: Mader DR, Divers SJ (eds): Current Therapy in Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Elsevier, St Louis. 93–106.
 
download PDF

© 2018 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences