Article concerns economic and energy efficiency of agriculture in European Union countries. The study period concerned 2016. For analysis and presentation of materials, descriptive, tabular and graphic methods and the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method – CCR (Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes) model focused on input-oriented minimisation were used. An assessment of the socio-economic development of the EU countries was made using the following measures: Human Development Index (HDI) and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita (USD per inhabitant). Modern agriculture depends on industrial energy sources and as the socio-economic development changes into more and more energy-intensive production technologies. After presenting the introduction and review of the literature, the economic and energy efficiency of agriculture in the EU countries in 2016 was examined, which was at a high level – the DEA reached 0.67. Then, the correlation between the socio-economic development of countries and their economic and energy efficiency was analysed. It was also found that along with socio-economic development in the EU countries, the economic and energy efficiency of agriculture is increasing.
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