A non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique was applied to investigate the degree of efficiency and efficiency change of prefecture-level cities in the North-East China from 2000 to 2012. Mean pure technical efficiency in a DEA model with the number of agriculture was 0.79, indicating that there is a big potential for a more efficient input utilization in agricultural productivity. Decomposition results of the Malmquist index indicated that the average productivity (MALM) growth at 8.0 percent annually over the entire period in the North-East China and the major source of growth was the technical change. In order to stimulate the productivity growth, more attention should be paid to improving the production efficiency. Polices should be enacted to increase the technical investment in agriculture, to enhance the rural education and research in agriculture which may help farmers to improve the agricultural efficiency and productivity. Given the limitations of the Statistical Yearbook data, some field investigation may carry out in future studies.
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