Farm outcomes based on cluster analysis of compound farm evaluation

Hloušková Z., Lekešová M. (2020): Farm outcomes based on cluster analysis of compound farm evaluation. Agric. Econ. – Czech, 66: 435–443.

download PDF

The purpose of this paper is to examine the internal structure of Czech agricultural holdings based on a multicriteria evaluation of the five dimensions representing the main functions of agriculture including production, economic
factors, financial stability, environmental, and social and other factors. A cluster analysis was performed to identify two clusters of farms. The first cluster consists of smaller holdings that specialize in livestock production and achieve poorer financial results compared to the second cluster, which includes a larger share of large holdings that focus on crop production. The first cluster exhibited better performance as regards environmental protection and financial stability. In contrast, the second cluster achieved better scores regarding production and economic factors. However, an evaluation of all dimensions showed that the second cluster of farms obtained slightly better ratings (2.7% above the overall average) then the first cluster (3.1% below the overall average score). It is up to policy makers to decide which group of farmers, is more approaching the aim of the new agricultural policy. Policy makers can consider the results of this study to find the areas where the sustainability rate should be increased and purposefully promote that by specific measures to achieve balanced farming system.

De Luca A.I., Iofrida N., Leskinen P., Stillitano T., Falcone G., Strano A., Gulisano G. (2017): Life cycle tools combined with multi-criteria and participatory methods for agricultural sustainability: Insights from a systematic and critical review. Science of the Total Environment, 595: 352–370.
Dillon J.E., Hennessy T., Buckley C., Donnellan T., Hanrahan K., Moran B., Ryan M. (2016): Measuring progress in agricultural sustainability to support policy-making. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 14: 31–44.
Dolman M.A., Vrolijk H.C.J., de Boer I.J.M. (2012): Exploring variation in economic, environmental and societal performance among Dutch fattening pig farms. Livestock Science, 149: 143–154.
EC (1999): Safeguarding the multifunctional role of EU agriculture: which instruments? Info-Paper. European Commission, Directorate-General of Agriculture.
EC (2020): Analysis of Links between CAP Reform and Green Deal. Commission Staff Working Document. Brussels.
FADN CZ (2019): Farm Accountancy Data Network Database 2016. Czech Republic, Liaison Agency FADN CZ.
FAO (1999): Sustaining the multiple functions of agricultural biodiversity. Cultivating our future. In: Proceegings: FAO/Netherlands Conference, The Multifunctional Character of Agriculture and Land, Maastricht, Sept 12–17,
1999. Available at (accessed Jan 6, 2020).
Hartigan J.A., Wong M.A. (1979): Algorithm AS 136: A  K-means clustering algorithm. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series C (Applied Statistics), 28: 100–108.
Joint Research Centre (2014): Environmental Performance Index 2014. JRC Analysis and Recommendations. Ispra, European Commission.
Latruffe L., Diazabakana A., Bockstaller Ch., Desjeux Y., Finn J., Kelly E., Ryan M., Uthes S. (2016a): Measurement of sustainability in agriculture: a review of indicators. Studies in Agricultural Economics, 118: 123–130.
Latruffe L., Desjeux Y., Justinia Hanitravelo G., Hennesssy T.,
Bockstaller Ch., Dupraz P., Finn J. (2016b): Tradeoffs between economic, environmental and social sustainability: the case of a selection of European farms. FLINT, Seventh Framework Programme, EC. Available at (accessed Jan 15, 2020).
Mészáros D., Hufnagel L., Balázs K., Bíró Z., Jancsovszka P., Podmaniczky L., Sipos B. (2015): Farm-level environmental performance assessment in Hungary using the Green-point system. Studies in Agricultural Economics, 117: 131–139.
OECD (2008): Handbook on Construction Composite Indicators: Methodology and User Guide. Paris, OECD.
Renting H., Rossing W.A.H., Groot J.C.J., Van der Ploeg J.D., Laurent C., Perraud D., Stobbelaar D.J., Van Ittersum M.K. (2009): Exploring multifunctional agriculture. A review of conceptual approaches and prospects for an integrative transitional framework. Journal of Environmental Management, 90: S112–S123.
Sulewski P., Kloczko-Gajewska A., Sroka W. (2018a): Relations between agri-environmental, economic and social dimensions of farms' sustainability. Sustainability: 10/12.
Sulewski P., Kloczko-Gajewska A. (2018): Development of the sustainability index of farms based on surveys and FADN sample. Problems of Agricultural Economics, 356: 32–56.
Špička J., Vintr T., Aulová R., Macháčková J. (2020): Trade-off between the economic and environmental sustainability in Czech dual farm structure. Agricultural Economics – Czech, 66: 243–250.
Thomassen M.A., Dolman M.A., van Calker K.J., de Boer I.J.M.
(2009): Relating life cycle assessment indicators to gross value added for Dutch dairy farms. Ecological Economics, 68: 2278–2284.
Van der Werf H.M.G., Kanyarushoki C., Corson M.S. (2009): An operational method for the evaluation of resource use and environmental impacts of dairy farms by life cycle assessment. Journal of Environmental Management, 90: 3643–3652.
Velten S., Leventon J., Jager N., Newig J. (2015): What is sustainable agriculture? A systematic review. Sustainability, 7: 7833–7865.
Wrzaszcz W. (2014): Sustainability of agricultural holdings in Poland. Warszawa, Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics: 239.
download PDF

© 2022 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti