Smart Specialization in this research is addressed to the use of collaboration as a tool for increasing efficiency of investment in entrepreneurship, research and innovation in a service-driven post-industrial economic system. This study provides evidence that collaboration potential is used only partly during the implementation of Smart Specialization strategy. The research illustrates given thesis by the evaluation of collaboration in Lithuanian biogas sector, which is listed among the priorities of Lithuania’s Smart Specialization strategy till 2020, using structured interviews. The main aim of this empirical research is to assess the will to collaborate in order to enhance the development of Smart Specialization and identify unused collaboration potential among all Quadruple Helix model counterparts in the biogas sector. Empirical findings show that collaboration in the Smart Specialization development has a big potential. However, this potential is used only partly because of lack of knowledge and available business infrastructure for this task and the passive role in collaboration processes of government institutions. Research findings suggest that current situation should be changed by supporting measures for business and NGOs with the aim to encourage collaborative initiatives for Smart Specialization. Research findings might serve as guidelines for policy makers, entrepreneurs, university and NGO managers.
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