Growth performance, carcass traits, blood parameters, rumen enzymes, and fattening earnings of cattle fed corn silage/corn stalk silage based finishing diets
This study was conducted to investigate the growth performance, carcass traits, blood parameters, rumen enzymes, and fattening earnings of beef cattle when substituting corn stalk silage with corn silage or corn grain in finishing rations. Forty-five Bohai Black steers were selected and fattened in a three-phase (4 weeks–4 weeks–16 weeks) way with one of three diets based on corn silage (CS), corn stalk silage (SS) without/with equivalent corn grain supplement (SSC), respectively. During the 24-week trial, individual feed intake and body weight were recorded every four weeks. By the end, blood and rumen fluid were sampled, and all the cattle were slaughtered to evaluate carcass performance. There were no significant differences found in the body weight gain, daily feed intake or feed efficiency among different dietary treatments over the whole finishing period except that the cattle fed CS achieved higher weight gain and feed efficiency in Phase 2 than those fed SS or SSC along with a lower feed intake than that of cattle fed SSC. No significant effect was found on the hot carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, dressing percentage, aging loss, loin eye area, and the weights of chuckeye, ribeye, striploin, and tenderloin. The cattle fed CS showed lower blood concentrations of ALT and glucose along with a higher ratio of AST and ALT than those fed SS. The cattle fed SSC also presented a higher activity of avicelase in the rumen fluid and their fattening earnings were approximately $27.50 less than those of the cattle fed CS or SS. These results suggest that substituting corn stalk silage with corn silage or corn grain could not improve animal performance and it is more economical to substitute corn stalk silage with corn silage rather than supplement equivalent corn grain in a high-concentrate finishing ration.
AOAC (2000): Official Methods of Analysis. 17th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, USA.
Beever D.E., Thorp C. (1996): Advances in the understanding of factors influencing the nutritive value of legumes. In: Younie D.E. (ed.): Legumes in Sustainable Farming Systems. British Grassland Society Occasional Symposium, 30, 194−207.
Broderick G.A., Kang J.H. (1980): Automated Simultaneous Determination of Ammonia and Total Amino Acids in Ruminal Fluid and In Vitro Media. Journal of Dairy Science, 63, 64-75 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(80)82888-8
Burken D.B. (2014): New approaches to corn silage use in beef cattle finishing diets. Master Diss. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska.
Dawson L.E.R. (2012): The effect of inclusion of lupins/triticale whole crop silage in the diet of winter finishing beef cattle on their performance and meat quality at two levels of concentrates. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 171, 75-84 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.09.011
Dewhurst R.J., Delaby L., Moloney A., Boland T., Lewis E. (2009): Nutritive value of forage legumes used for grazing and silage. Irish Journal of Agricultural Food Research, 48, 167–187.
Faulkner D. B., Hummel D. F., Buskirk D. D., Berger L. L., Parrett D. F., Cmarik G. F. (1994): Performance and nutrient metabolism by nursing calves supplemented with limited or unlimited corn or soyhulls. Journal of Animal Science, 72, 470-477 https://doi.org/10.2527/1994.722470x
Garcés-Yépez P, Kunkle W E, Bates D B, Moore J E, Thatcher W W, Sollenberger L E (1997): Effects of supplemental energy source and amount on forage intake and performance by steers and intake and diet digestibility by sheep.. Journal of Animal Science, 75, 1918- https://doi.org/10.2527/1997.7571918x
Hoover W.H. (1986): Chemical Factors Involved in Ruminal Fiber Digestion. Journal of Dairy Science, 69, 2755-2766 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(86)80724-X
Keady T. W. J., Lively F. O., Kilpatrick D. J., Moss B. W. (2007): Effects of replacing grass silage with either maize or whole-crop wheat silages on the performance and meat quality of beef cattle offered two levels of concentrates. animal, 1, 613- https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731107685024
Keady T.W.J., Kilpatrick D.J., Mayne C.S., Gordon F.J. (2008): Effects of replacing grass silage with maize silages, differing in maturity, on performance and potential concentrate sparing effect of dairy cows offered two feed value grass silages. Livestock Science, 119, 1-11 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2008.02.006
Kumar Rajeev, Wyman Charles E. (2009): Cellulase adsorption and relationship to features of corn stover solids produced by leading pretreatments. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 103, 252-267 https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.22258
Lee M.R.F., Evans P.R., Nute G.R., Richardson R.I., Scollan N.D. (2009): A comparison between red clover silage and grass silage feeding on fatty acid composition, meat stability and sensory quality of the M. Longissimus muscle of dairy cull cows. Meat Science, 81, 738-744 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2008.11.016
Liu Q., Wang C., Pei C.X., Li H.Y., Wang Y.X., Zhang S.L., Zhang Y.L., He J.P., Wang H., Yang W.Z., Bai Y.S., Shi Z.G., Liu X.N. (2014): Effects of isovalerate supplementation on microbial status and rumen enzyme profile in steers fed on corn stover based diet. Livestock Science, 161, 60-68 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2013.12.034
Moloney A.P., Keane M.G., Dunne P.G., Mooney M.T., Troy D.J. (2008): Effect of concentrate feeding pattern in a grass silage/concentrate beef finishing system on performance, selected carcass and meat quality characteristics. Meat Science, 79, 355-364 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.10.018
Mooney Caitriona A., Mansfield Shawn D., Touhy Maria G., Saddler John N. (1998): The effect of initial pore volume and lignin content on the enzymatic hydrolysis of softwoods. Bioresource Technology, 64, 113-119 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(97)00181-8
NRC (2000): Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. 7th Ed. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA.
O’Kiely P., Moloney A.P. (2000): Nutritive value of maize and grass silage for beef cattle when offered alone or in mixtures. In: Evans R.D. (ed.): Proceedings of the Agricultural Research Forum. Agricultural Research Forum Committee, Dublin, UK.
Pagana K.D., Pagana T.J. (2010): Mosby’s Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests. Mosby Elsevier, St. Louis, USA.
Pesonen M., Joki-Tokola E., Huuskonen A. (2014): The effect of silage plant species, concentrate proportion and sugar beet pulp supplementation on the performance of growing and finishing crossbred bulls. Animal Production Science, 54, 1703- https://doi.org/10.1071/AN14141
Russell J. R., Sexten W. J., Kerley M. S. (2016): Effect of corn inclusion on soybean hull–based diet digestibility and growth performance in continuous culture fermenters and beef cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 94, 2919-2926 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2015-0180
Walsh K., O'Kiely P., Moloney A.P., Boland T.M. (2008): Intake, performance and carcass characteristics of beef cattle offered diets based on whole-crop wheat or forage maize relative to grass silage or ad libitum concentrates. Livestock Science, 116, 223-236 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.10.010
Xiong Y. (2000): Determination of starch gelatinization (cooking degree) in feed. Feed Industry, 21, 30–31.
Zhang Xuezhen, Xie Ping, Wang Weimin, Li Dapeng, Shi Zechao (2008): Plasma biochemical responses of the omnivorous crucian carp (Carassius auratus) to crude cyanobacterial extracts. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 34, 323-329 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10695-007-9191-0