Evaluation of genetic diversity of subdivided genealogical groups in Lithuanian Trakehner horse population using immunogenetic toolsCitation:
Račkauskaitė A., Šveistienė R., Razmaitė V., Jatkauskienė V. (2021): Evaluation of genetic diversity of subdivided genealogical groups in Lithuanian Trakehner horse population using immunogenetic tools. Czech J. Anim. Sci. 66 (2021):200-210.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the inter-breed genetic diversity of Lithuanian Trakehner horses. The current population in Lithuania numbers 1 039 Trakehner horses. The study included the immunogenetic data analysis of 316 blood samples. Pedigree was traced back to 7–11 generations. The horses were assigned to genealogical clusters originating from East Prussian Trakehner Stud, Thoroughbred and Arab sires. The first two clusters were subdivided into nine-horse groups according to the most important ancestors. The evaluation of genetic diversity was based on six blood groups and five protein polymorphism systems. The differences between genealogical groups were confirmed by principal component analysis and applied cluster analysis. According to the allelic frequency, the Trakehner population changed very slightly through a 30-year period, and only one rare (0.013) allele TfRR (frequent in other Trakehner populations), has been newly found. The analysis of genetic polymorphism systems based on a very low rate of alleles Qabc (0.093) and Ddkl (0.046), which are typical of other populations, indicated the exclusivity of the Trakehner population in Lithuania. The average expected heterozygosity by blood protein polymorphism and blood groups were 0.409 and 0.441, respectively. The genetic clustering diverged by observed heterozygosity of blood groups and by pedigree data in Pilger through Egoist, Bay Ronald through Dark Ronald and Dampfross through Hyperion subgroups. The determined distinctiveness of subdivided Trakehner horse groups suggests reconsidering the breeding strategies and conservation programme of Trakehner horses. Breeding and selection of subdivided sire lines could be among the appropriate solutions for the maintenance and extension of the genealogical structure.
blood group; genealogy; stud; protein polymorphism
Brown AHD, Weir BS. Measuring genetic variability in plant populations. In: Tanksley SD, Orton TJ, editors. Isozymes in plant genetics and breeding, part A. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.; 1983. p. 219-39.
Druml T, Curik I, Baumung R, Aberle K, Distl O, Solkner J. Individual-based assessment of population structure and admixture in Austrian, Croatian and German draught horses. Hered. 2007 Feb;98(2):114-22. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.hdy.6800910
Goudet J: FSTAT, a program to estimate and test gene diversities and fixation indices [Internet]. Version 2.9.3. Lausanne (Switzerland): University of Lausanne.  – [last updated 2005 Aug 23; cited 2021 Feb 1]. Available from: https://www2.unil.ch/popgen/softwares/fstat.htm.
Hartl DL, Clark AG. Principles of population genetics. Sunderland (UK): Sinauer Associates; 1997 Jan. 545 p.
Iwanczyk E, Juras R, Cholewinski G, Cothran EG. Genetic structure and phylogenetic relationships of the Polish Heavy Horse. J Appl Genet. 2006 Dec;47(4):353-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03194645
Jiskrova I, Glasnak V, Misar D. The use of blood protein polymorphism for determining the genetic distance between the Moravian warm-blooded horse and Czech warm-blooded horse and Trakehner horses. Czech J Anim Sci. 2002 Mar 1;47(3):98-105.
Juras R, Cothran EG, Klimas R. Genetic analysis of three Lithuanian native horse breeds. Acta Agr Scand A Anim Sci. 2003 Nov 1;53(4):180-5. https://doi.org/10.1080/09064700310012971
Kamzolov BV. Istoriya Trakenenskoy parody [The history of Trakehner horse]. Minsk (BY): Cavalier Publishers; 2002. 383 p. Russian.
Khrabrova LA. Monitoring of genetic structure of breeds in horse breeding. Russ Agric Sci. 2008 Aug;34(4):261-3. https://doi.org/10.3103/S1068367408040150
Kriksciunas B. Imunogeneticeski polimorfizm losadei Litovskoi SSR i ego ispolzovanie v plemennom dele [Immunogenetic polymorphism of horses in the Lithuanian SSR and its use in breeding] [dissertation]. Baisogala (Lithuania): Lithuanian Research Institute of Livestock and Veterinary; 1990. 155 p. Russian.
Kvist L, Niskanen M, Mannermaa K, Wutke S, Aspi J. Genetic variability and history of a native Finnish horse breed. Genet Sel Evol. 2019 Dec;51(1): 14 p. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12711-019-0480-8
Mazonis S, Barauskas V. Lietuvos TSR veisliniu arkliu kilmes knyga [Lithuanian SRS state studbook of horses]. Vol. 6. Vilnius (Lithuania): Ministry of Agriculture of Lithuanian SRS, State Inspection of Breeding Work; 1974. p. 3-9, 367-92. Lithuanian.
Nei M. Genetic distance between populations. Am Nat. 1972 May-Jun;106(949):283-91. https://doi.org/10.1086/282771
Nolte W, Thaller G, Kuehn C. Selection signatures in four German warmblood horse breeds: Tracing breeding history in the modern sport horse. PLOS One. 2019;14(4): 25 p. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0215913
Peakall R, Smouse PE. GenAlEx 6.5: Genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research – an update. Bioinformatics. 2012 July 20;28(19):2537-9. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bts460
Purvinas M, Purviniene M, Kacinskaite I, Misius K. Lietuvos dvaru sodybu atlasas. II: Pagegiu savivaldybe [Atlas of Lithuanian Estates. II: Pagegiai municipality]. Vilnius (Lithuania): Vilnius Academy of Fine Arts Press; 2014. 337 p. Lithuanian.
Stachurska A, Nogaj A, Brodacki A, Nogaj J, Batkowska J. Genetic distances between horse breeds in Poland estimated according to blood protein polymorphism. Czech J Anim Sci. 2014 Jun;59(6):257-67. https://doi.org/10.17221/7496-CJAS
Tautorat HG. Trakehnen [Trakehner]. Gluckstadt (Germany): Landsmannschaft Ostpreussen; 1982. 60 p. German.
Teegen R, Edel C, Thaller G. Population structure of Trakehner Horse breed. Animal. 2009 Jan 1;3(1):6-15. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731108003273
Vostry L, Kracikova O, Hofmanova B, Czernekova V, Kott T, Pribyl J. Intra-line and inter-line genetic diversity in sire lines of the Old Kladruber horse based on microsatellite analysis of DNA. Czech J Anim Sci. 2011 Apr;56(4):163-75. https://doi.org/10.17221/1437-CJAS
Weir BS, Cockerham CC. Estimating F-statistics for the analysis of population structure. Evolution. 1984 Nov;38(6):1358-70. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1558-5646.1984.tb05657.x