Effects of dietary energy level and guanidino acetic acid supplementation on growth performance, carcass quality and intestinal architecture of broilers
Energy, known as the most expensive nutrient in broiler feed, is what strongly adjusts and affects the growth of broilers. Creatine has a key role in cellular energy metabolism and could be synthesised from guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) in the liver; however, its de novo synthesis is not able to adequately fulfil the demand of energy metabolism, especially in fast-growing modern broilers. So the aim of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of commercial GAA in energy-reduced broiler diets on performance and intestinal development. Overall, 11 400 day-old Ross 308 chicks were randomly allocated to six dietary treatments with ten replicates in each. Dietary treatments were designed as a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with three levels of dietary metabolisable energy (AMEn) recommended by Aviagen for Ross 308 broilers (12.55 MJ/kg, 12.97 MJ/kg and 13.38 MJ/kg for starter, grower and finisher, respectively), 0.209 MJ/kg and 0.418 MJ/kg reduced and two levels of GAA (0.00% and 0.06%). There was no significant GAA × AMEn interaction for all performance parameters, carcass traits and jejunal morphological parameters (except for the villus width). Reduction of dietary AMEn (0.209 MJ/kg and/or 0.418 MJ/kg) caused a significant depression in body weight (BW) gain (P < 0.001) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P < 0.001). However, a decreasing AMEn level increased villus height (P < 0.003) and villus surface area (P < 0.03), while crypt depth and villus width were similar. The GAA improved final BW and FCR by 1.77% and 1.66%, respectively (P < 0.001). Birds fed low energy diets supplemented with GAA showed a significant improvement in the performance so that BW and FCR were the same as in the control birds; however, no such positive effects were obtained in jejunal villus development. Hence, it might be concluded that 0.06% GAA supplementation improves BW and FCR and can save at least 0.209 MJ/kg dietary AMEn in broiler diets.
Adedokun SA, Olojede OC. Optimizing gastrointestinal integrity in poultry: The role of nutrients and feed additives. Front Vet Sci. 2019 Jan 31;5: 11 p. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00348
Ahiwe EU, Omede AA, Abdallh MB, Iji PA. Managing dietary energy intake by broiler chickens to reduce production costs and improve product quality. In: Yucel B, Taskin T, editors. Animal husbandry and nutrition. London: IntechOpen; 2018 Nov 5. p. 115-45.
Ahmadipour B, Khajali F, Sharifi MR. Effect of guanidinoacetic acid supplementation on growth performance and gut morphology in broiler chickens. J Poult Sci. 2018 Jan;6(1):19-24.
Ale Saheb Fosoul SS, Toghyani M, Gheisari A, Tabeidiyan SA, Mohammadrezaei M, Azarfar A. Performance, immunity, and physiological responses of broilers to dietary energy and protein sequential variations. Poult Sci. 2016 Sep 1;95(9):2068-80. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pew084
Ale Saheb Fosoul SS, Azarfar A, Gheisari A, Khosravinia H. Energy utilisation of broiler chickens in response to guanidinoacetic acid supplementation in diets with various energy contents. Br J Nutr. 2018 Jul;120(2):131-40. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114517003701
AOAC – Association of Official Analytic Chemists. Official methods of analysis. 18th ed. Arlington, USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists; 2006.
Baker DH. Advances in protein–amino acid nutrition of poultry. Amino Acids. 2009 May 1;37(1):29-41. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-008-0198-3
Classen HL. Diet energy and feed intake in chickens. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 2017 Nov 1;233:13-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2016.03.004
Corzo A, Kidd MT, Dozier WA, Pharr GT, Kotsos EA. Dietary threonine needs for growth and immunity of broilers raised under different litter conditions. J Appl Poult Res. 2007 Dec 1;16(4):574-82. https://doi.org/10.3382/japr.2007-00046
CRL-FA – Community Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives. CRL evaluation report on guanidinoacetic acid CreAminoTM. Parma (Italy): European Food Safety Authority; 2007 Aug 29. 8 p. Report No.: D08/FSQ/CVH/DG/D (2007) 19586.
DeGroot AA, Braun U, Dilger RN. Guanidinoacetic acid is efficacious in improving growth performance and muscle energy homeostasis in broiler chicks fed arginine-deficient or arginine-adequate diets. Poult Sci. 2019;98(7):2896-905. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pez036
Dozier WA 3rd, Corzo A, Kidd MT, Branton SL. Dietary apparent metabolizable energy and amino acid density effects on growth and carcass traits of heavy broilers. J Appl Poult Res. 2007 Jul 1;16(2):192-205. https://doi.org/10.1093/japr/16.2.192
Edwards HM Jr, Young RJ, Gillis MB. Studies on arginine deficiency in chicks. J Nutr. 1958 Feb 1;64(2):271-9. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/64.2.271
EFSA – European Food Safety Authority. Scientific opinion of the panel on additives and products or substances used in animal feed on a request from the European Commission on the safety and efficacy of guanidinoacetic acid as feed additive for chickens for fattening. EFSA J. 2009 Mar;988: 30 p.
Heger J, Zelenka J, Machander V, de la Cruz C, Lestak M, Hampel D. Effects of guanidinoacetic acid supplementation to broiler diets with varying energy content. Acta Univ Agric Silvic Mendel Brun. 2014 Aug 6;62(3):477-85. https://doi.org/10.11118/actaun201462030477
Hu X, Wang Y, Sheikhahmadi A, Li X, Buyse J, Lin H, Song Z. Effects of dietary energy level on appetite and central adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in broilers. J Anim Sci. 2019 Nov 4;97(11):4488-95. https://doi.org/10.1093/jas/skz312
Lemme A, Ringel J, Sterk A, Young JF. Supplemental guanidinoacetic acid affects energy metabolism of broilers. In: Proceedings of the 16th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition; 2007 Aug 26-30; Strasbourg (France): European Federation of WPSA Branches; 2007a. p. 339-42.
Lemme A, Ringel J, Rostagno HS, Redshaw MS. Supplemental guanidinoacetic acid improved feed conversion, weight gain, and breast meat yield in male and female broilers. In: Proceedings of the 16th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition; 2007 Aug 26-30; Strasbourg (France): European Federation of WPSA Branches; 2007b. p. 26-30.
Michiels J, Maertens L, Buyse J, Lemme A, Rademacher M, Dierick NA, De Smet S. Supplementation of guanidinoacetic acid to broiler diets: Effects on performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and energy metabolism. Poult Sci. 2012 Feb 1;91(2):402-12. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2011-01585
Mousavi SN, Afsar A, Lotfollahian H. Effects of guanidinoacetic acid supplementation to broiler diets with varying energy contents. J Appl Poult Res. 2013 Mar 1;22(1):47-54. https://doi.org/10.3382/japr.2012-00575
Nasiroleslami M, Torki M, Saki AA, Abdolmohammadi AR. Effects of dietary guanidinoacetic acid and betaine supplementation on performance, blood biochemical parameters and antioxidant status of broilers subjected to cold stress. J Appl Poult Res. 2018 Jan 1;46(1):1016-22. https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2018.1450751
Ren QC, Xuan JJ, Yan XC, Hu ZZ, Wang F. Effects of dietary supplementation of guanidinoacetic acid on growth performance, thigh meat quality and development of small intestine in Partridge-Shank broilers. J Agric Sci. 2018 Nov;156(9):1130-7. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859618001156
Ringel J, Lemme A, Knox A, McNab J, Redshaw MS. Effects of graded levels of creatine and guanidinoacetic acid in vegetable-based diets on performance and biochemical parameters in muscle tissue. In: Proceedings of the 16th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition; 2007 Aug 26-30; Strasbourg (France): European Federation of WPSA Branches; 2007. p. 387-90.
Sharma NK, Choct M, Toghyani M, Laurenson YC, Girish CK, Swick RA. Dietary energy, digestible lysine, and available phosphorus levels affect growth performance, carcass traits, and amino acid digestibility of broilers. Poult Sci. 2018 Apr 1;97(4):1189-98. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pex405
Solis de los Santos F, Farnell MB, Tellez G, Balog JM, Anthony NB, Torres-Rodriguez A, Donoghue AM. Effect of prebiotic on gut development and ascites incidence of broilers reared in a hypoxic environment. Poult Sci. 2005 Jul 1;84(7):1092-100. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/84.7.1092
Tallentire CW, Leinonen I, Kyriazakis I. Artificial selection for improved energy efficiency is reaching its limits in broiler chickens. Sci Rep. 2018 Jan 18;8(1):1-10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-23133-8
van Beers-Schreurs HMG, Nabuurs MJA, Vellenga L, Kalsbeek-van der Valk HJ, Wensing T, Breukink HJ. Weaning and the weanling diet influence the villous height and crypt depth in the small intestine of pigs and alter the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids in the large intestine and blood. J Nutr. 1998 Jun 1;128(6):947-53. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/128.6.947
Windmueller HG, Spaeth AE. Metabolism of absorbed aspartate asparagine, and arginine by rat small intestine in vivo. Arch Biochem Bio Phys. 1976 Aug 1;175(2):670-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9861(76)90558-0
Xu ZR, Hu CH, Xia MS, Zhan XA, Wang MQ. Effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide on digestive enzyme activities, intestinal microflora and morphology of male broilers. Poult Sci. 2003 Jun 1;82(6):1030-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/82.6.1030