Estimation of genetic and non-genetic effects influencing coat colour in black horses

https://doi.org/10.17221/136/2018-CJASCitation:Hofmanová B., Vostrý L., Vostrá - Vydrová H., Dokoupilová A., Majzlík I. (2019): Estimation of genetic and non-genetic effects influencing coat colour in black horses. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 64: 41-48.
download PDF

The aims of this study are the quantitative characterisation of the coat colour in the black variety of the Old Kladruber Horse breed, the estimation of the coat colour genetic parameters, and the determination of the factors that influence coat colour intensity. A total of 252 horses aged 1–24 years were included in the study. The colour parameters were taken using a Konica Minolta spectrophotometer CM-2500d at four different body parts during the summer and winter seasons, resulting in 1748 phenotypic records. The possible effects of sex, season, housing system, age and body part on the spectrophotometric parameters were analysed. The results confirmed that the intensity of the black coat colour can be influenced by a number of factors (sex, season, housing system, and age). The mares showed more red and yellow colour compared to the stallions. In the winter season, the horses had a lighter colour with a lower proportion of reddish-brown hairs. Horses kept outdoors, especially in the summer months, had a lighter colour with a higher proportion of red and yellow. Although the age was statistically significant, no specific trend was observed. The differences in colour found between body parts (neck, shoulder, belly, and croup) are in line with current knowledge – reddish fading in the blacks primarily occurs in the belly region. The estimated heritability values suggest possible multifactorial inheritance, especially with regards to the reddish tinge in hairs (h2 = 0.20 to 0.29 according to body part).

References:
Curik Ino, Druml Thomas, Seltenhammer Monika, Sundström Elisabeth, Pielberg Gerli Rosengren, Andersson Leif, Sölkner Johann, Goddard Mike E. (2013): Complex Inheritance of Melanoma and Pigmentation of Coat and Skin in Grey Horses. PLoS Genetics, 9, e1003248- https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003248
 
Druml Thomas, Grilz-Seger Gertrud, Neuditschko Markus, Neuhauser Barbara, Brem Gottfried (2017): Phenotypic and Genetic Analysis of the Leopard Complex Spotting in Noriker Horses. Journal of Heredity, 108, 505-514 https://doi.org/10.1093/jhered/esx039
 
Thomas Druml, Gertrud Grilz-Seger, Michaela Horna, Gottfried Brem (2018): Discriminant analysis of colour measurements reveals allele dosage effect of ASIP/MC1R in bay horses. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 63, 347-355 https://doi.org/10.17221/105/2017-CJAS
 
Hofmanová B., Vostrý L., Majzlík I., Vostrá-Vydrová H. (2016): Characterization of greying, melanoma, and vitiligo quantitative inheritance in Old Kladruber horses. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 60, 443-451 https://doi.org/10.17221/8524-CJAS
 
Janova Eva, Futas Jan, Klumplerova Marie, Putnova Lenka, Vrtkova Irena, Vyskocil Mirko, Frolkova Petra, Horin Petr (2013): Genetic diversity and conservation in a small endangered horse population. Journal of Applied Genetics, 54, 285-292 https://doi.org/10.1007/s13353-013-0151-3
 
Kasarda R., Vostrý L., Moravčíková N., Vostrá-Vydrová H., Dovč P., Kadlečík O. (2016): Detailed insight into genetic diversity of the Old Kladruber horse substructure in comparison to the Lipizzan breed. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A — Animal Science, 66, 67-74 https://doi.org/10.1080/09064702.2016.1249400
 
Kim Dong-Seok, Park Seo-Hyoung, Kwon Sun-Bang, Joo Young-Hyun, Youn Sang-Woong, Sohn Uy-Dong, Park Kyoung-Chan (2003): Temperature regulates melanin synthesis in melanocytes. Archives of Pharmacal Research, 26, 840-845 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02980030
 
Madsen P., Jensen J. (2008): DMU: A User’s Guide. A Package for Analysing Multivariate Mixed Models. Version 6, Release 4.7. Danish Institute of Agricultural Science, Foulum, Denmark. Available at http://dmu. agrsci. dk (accessed June 19, 2008).
 
Majzlik I., Hofmanova B., Vostry L., Kracikova O., Mach K. (2010): Genetic analysis of greying process in Old Kladruber horse. In: Proc. 9th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Leipzig, Germany, 244.
 
Marklund L., Moller M. Johansson, Sandberg K., Andersson L. (1996): A missense mutation in the gene for melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor (MCIR) is associated with the chestnut coat color in horses. Mammalian Genome, 7, 895-899 https://doi.org/10.1007/s003359900264
 
Rieder Stefan (2009): Molecular tests for coat colours in horses. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, 126, 415-424 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0388.2009.00832.x
 
Rieder Stefan, Taourit Sead, Mariat Denis, Langlois Bertrand, Guérin Gérard (2001): Mutations in the agouti (ASIP), the extension (MC1R), and the brown (TYRP1) loci and their association to coat color phenotypes in horses (Equus caballus). Mammalian Genome, 12, 450-455 https://doi.org/10.1007/s003350020017
 
SAKAMOTO Takahiro, FAWCETT Jeffrey A., INNAN Hideki (2017): Evaluating the potential roles of the <i>Gray</i> and <i>Extension</i> loci in the coat coloration of Thoroughbred racing horses. Journal of Equine Science, 28, 61-65 https://doi.org/10.1294/jes.28.61
 
Slominski Andrzej, Tobin Desmond J., Shibahara Shigeki, Wortsman Jacobo (2004): Melanin Pigmentation in Mammalian Skin and Its Hormonal Regulation. Physiological Reviews, 84, 1155-1228 https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00044.2003
 
Sponenberg D.P. (1996): Equine Color Genetics. A Blackwell Publishing Company, Iowa State Press, USA.
 
Sponenberg DP, Weise MC (1997): Dominant black in horses. Genetics Selection Evolution, 29, 403- https://doi.org/10.1186/1297-9686-29-3-403
 
Stachurska Anna, Pięta Mirosław, Jaworski Zbigniew, Ussing Anne P., Bruśniak Agnieszka, Florek Mariusz (2004): Colour variation in blue dun Polish Konik and Biłgoraj horses. Livestock Production Science, 90, 201-209 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livprodsci.2004.04.002
 
Stachurska A., Pięta M., Łojek J., Szulowska J. (2007): Performance in racehorses of various colours. Livestock Science, 106, 282-286 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2006.07.017
 
Thiruvenkadan A.K., Kandasamy N., Panneerselvam S. (2008): Coat colour inheritance in horses. Livestock Science, 117, 109-129 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2008.05.008
 
Toth Z., Kaps M., Sölkner J., Bodo I., Curik I. (2006): Quantitative genetic aspects of coat color in horses1. Journal of Animal Science, 84, 2623-2628 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2005-704
 
Vostrá-Vydrová H., Vostrý L., Hofmanová B., Krupa E., Zavadilová L. (2016): Pedigree analysis of the endangered Old Kladruber horse population. Livestock Science, 185, 17-23 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2016.01.001
 
Vostrý L., Kracíková O., Hofmanová B., Czerneková V., Kott T., Přibyl J. (2011): Intra-line and inter-line genetic diversity in sire lines of the Old Kladruber horse based on microsatellite analysis of DNA. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 56, 163-175 https://doi.org/10.17221/1437-CJAS
 
download PDF

© 2019 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences