Differences between Jersey and Holstein cows in milking-induced teat prolongation during lactation

https://doi.org/10.17221/145/2019-CJASCitation:Gašparík M., Stádník L., Ducháček J., Tančin V. (2019): Differences between Jersey and Holstein cows in milking-induced teat prolongation during lactation. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 64: 431-438.
download PDF

Factors consequential to milking-induced teat prolongation (MITP) were identified. Effects of breed, teat position, lactation number, lactation stage and their interactions were evaluated. The length of each teat before and after milking was measured seven times during lactation in 59 Holstein cows and 45 Jersey cows. Rear teats seemed to prolong more with the exception of rear left teats of Holstein cows. MITP of Holsteins was more balanced among quarters compared to Jerseys, where we observed significantly higher MITP of their rear teats. The pairs mostly had similar reactions even for different teat lengths, therefore for future studies evaluating one of each pair should be sufficient and more effective. Development of MITP during lactation showed more variability at the onset of lactation, followed by more uniform response at later stages. Lower MITP for higher parity cows was observed only in Holsteins. Overall, Jerseys achieved a significantly higher level of MITP, which suggests breed differences in reaction to milking. Effects identified in this study should be taken into consideration while designing future experiments in this area. In addition, our results suggest the future necessity to improve milking technology to allow group or even individual settings optimization based on breed, lactation stage, lactation number, and teat position.

References:
Divers T.J., Peek S.F. (2007): Rebhun’s Diseases of Dairy Cattle. Sounders, Elsevier, St. Louis, USA.
 
dos Santos S.K., Oliveira M.G., Noriler E.P., Vrisman D.P., Borges L.P.B., Santos V.J.C., Coutinho L.N., Teixeira P.P.M. (2016): Mammary gland ultrasound evaluation of Jersey cattle breed. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 44, 1–5.
 
Gasparik M., Duchacek J., Stadnik L., Novakova V. (2018): Impact of milking settings optimization on milk quality, milking time and milk yield in Holstein cows. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 420, 012073.
 
Geishauser T., Querengasser K. (2000): Investigations on teat canal length in teats with milk flow disturbances. Journal of Dairy Science, 83, 1976–1980. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)75074-0
 
Genc M., Coban O., Ozenturk U., Eltas O. (2018): Influence of breed and parity on teat and milking characteristics in dairy cattle. Macedonian Veterinary Review, 41, 169–176. https://doi.org/10.2478/macvetrev-2018-0020
 
Gleeson D.E., O’Callaghan E.J., Rath M.V. (2004): Effect of liner design, pulsator setting, and vacuum level on bovine teat tissue changes and milking characteristics as measured by ultrasonography. Irish Veterinary Journal, 57, 289–296. https://doi.org/10.1186/2046-0481-57-5-289
 
Guarin J.F., Ruegg P.L. (2016): Pre- and postmilking anatomical characteristics of teats and their associations with risk of clinical mastitis in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 99, 8323–8329. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2015-10093
 
Guarin J.F., Paixao M.G., Ruegg P.L. (2017): Association of anatomical characteristics of teats with quarter-level somatic cell count. Journal of Dairy Science, 100, 643–652. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-11459
 
Hamann J., Mein G.A., Wetzel S. (1993): Teat tissue reactions to milking: Effects of vacuum level. Journal of Dairy Science, 76, 1040–1046. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77432-9
 
Ipema A.H., Tancin V., Hogewerf P.H. (2005): Responses of milk removal characteristics of single quarters on different vacuum levels. ICAR Technical Series, 10, 49–55.
 
Isaksson A., Lind O. (1992): Teat reactions in cows associated with machine milking. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A, 39, 282–288. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0442.1992.tb00184.x
 
Lacy-Hulbert S.J., Hillerton J.E. (1995): Physical characteristics of the bovine teat canal and their influence on susceptibility to streptococcal infection. Journal of Dairy Research, 62, 395–404. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029900031101
 
Lees C., Vincent J.F., Hillerton J.E. (1991): Poisson’s ratio in skin. Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering, 1, 19–23.
 
Neijenhuis F., Barkema H.W., Hogeveen H., Noordhuizen J.P.T.M. (2001): Relationship between teat-end callosity and occurrence of clinical mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science, 84, 2664–2672. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)74720-0
 
O’Callaghan E.J. (2001): Influence of liner design on interactions of the teat and liner. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research, 40, 169–176.
 
Parilova M., Stadnik L., Jezkova A., Stolc L. (2011): Effect of milking vacuum level and overmilking on cow’s teat characteristics. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 59, 193–202. https://doi.org/10.11118/actaun201159050193
 
Stadnik L., Louda F., Bezdicek J., Jezkova A., Rakos M. (2010): Changes in teat parameters caused by milking and their recovery to their initial size. Archiv Tierzucht, 53, 650–662.
 
Strapak P., Szencziova I., Stadnik L. (2015): Use of ultrasonography for evaluation of internal structures of udder and teats in dairy cows. Slovak University of Agriculture, Nitra, Slovakia. (in Slovak)
 
Strapak P., Strapakova E., Rusinova M., Szencziova I. (2017): The influence of milking on the teat canal of dairy cows determined by ultrasonographic measurements. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 62, 75–81. https://doi.org/10.17221/68/2015-CJAS
 
Tancin V., Ipema B., Hogewerf P., Macuhova J. (2006): Sources of variation in milk flow characteristics at udder and quarter levels. Journal of Dairy Science, 89, 978–988. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72163-4
 
Weiss D., Weinfurtner M., Bruckmaier R.M. (2004): Teat anatomy and its relationship with quarter and udder milk flow characteristics in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 87, 3280–3289. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73464-5
 
Zwertvaegher I., Baert J., Vangeyte J., Genbrugge A., Van Weyenberg S. (2011): Objective measuring technique for teat dimensions of dairy cows. Biosystems Engineering, 110, 206–212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2011.08.009
 
Zwertvaegher I., Van Weyenberg S., Piepers S., Baert J., De Vliegher S. (2012): Variance components of teat dimensions in dairy cows and associated factors. Journal of Dairy Science, 95, 4978–4988. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-5296
 
Zwertvaegher I., De Vliegher S., Verbist B., Van Nuffel A., Baert J., Van Weyenberg S. (2013): Short communication: Associations between teat dimensions and milking-induced changes in teat dimensions and quarter milk somatic cell counts in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 96, 1075–1080. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-5636
 
download PDF

© 2019 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences