Principal component analysis of conformation traits in Hungarian Simmental cows

https://doi.org/10.17221/155/2020-CJASCitation:

Török E., Komlósi I., Béri B., Füller I., Vágó B., Posta J. (2021): Principal component analysis of conformation traits in Hungarian Simmental cows. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 66: 39–45

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The aim of the current research was to analyze the linear type traits of Hungarian Simmental dual-purpose cows scored in the first lactation using principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Data collected by the Association of Hungarian Simmental Breeders were studied during the work. The filtered database contained the results of 8 868 cows, born after 1997. From the evaluation of main conformation traits, the highest correlations (r = 0.35, P < 0.05) were found between mammary system and feet and legs traits. Within linear type traits, the highest correlation was observed between rump length and rump width (r = 0.81, P < 0.05). Using the principal component analysis, main conformation traits were combined into groups. There were three factors having 84.5 as total variance ratio after varimax rotation. Cluster analysis verified the results of the principal component analysis as most of the trait groups were similar. The strongest relationship was observed between feet and legs and mammary system (main conformation traits) and between rump length and rump width (linear type traits).

References:
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Bohlouli M, Alijani S, Varposhti MR. Genetic relationships among linear type traits and milk production traits of Holstein dairy cattle. Ann Anim Sci. 2015 Oct 29;15(4):903-17.
 
Campos RV, Cobuci JA, Costa CN, Neto JB. Genetic parameters for type traits in Holstein cows in Brazil. R Bras Zootec. 2012 Oct;41(10):2150-61. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982012001000003
 
Campos RV, Cobuci JA, Kern EL, Costa CN, McManus CM. Genetic parameters for linear type traits and milk, fat, and protein production in Holstein cows in Brazil. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 2015 Apr;28(4):476-84.
 
Canji V, Strapak P, Strapakova E, Juhas P. Effect of conformation traits on longevity of cows of Slovak Simmental breed. Slovak J Anim Sci. 2008 Jun 30;41(2):83-90.
 
Chu MX, Shi SK. Phenotypic factor analysis for linear type traits in Beijing Holstein cows. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 2002 Jan 1;15(11):1527-30. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2002.1527
 
Corrales JA, Ceron-Munoz M, Canas JA, Herrera CR, Calvo SC. Relationship between type traits and milk production in Holstein cows from Antioquia, Colombia. Rev MVZ Cordoba. 2011 May-Aug;16(2):2507-13. Spanish with English abstract. https://doi.org/10.21897/rmvz.1014
 
Erdem H, Atasever S, Kul E. Changes of linear type trait scores in Simmental Cows. J Res Agric Anim Sci. 2017 Jun;4(10):8-11.
 
Everitt BS, Landau S, Leese M. Cluster analysis. London: Taylor and Francis; 2001. p. 237.
 
Frigo E, Samore AB, Vicario D, Bagnato A, Pedron O. Heritabilities and genetic correlations of body condition score and muscularity with productive traits and their trend functions in Italian Simmental cattle. Ital J Anim Sci. 2013;12(40):240-6. https://doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2013.e40
 
Girden ER. Evaluating research articles from start to finish. Thousand Oaks (CA): Sage Publications; 2001. p. 369.
 
ICAR – International Committee for Animal Recording. Section 5 – ICAR guidelines for conformation recording of dairy cattle, beef cattle, dual purpose cattle and dairy goats [Internet]. [Rome, Italy]: ICAR; 2018 Jun [cited 2020 May 1]. 76 p. Available from: https://www.icar.org/Guidelines/05-Conformation-Recording.pdf.
 
Jiang J, Cole JB, Freebern E, Da Y, VanRaden PM, Ma L. Functional annotation and Bayesian fine-mapping reveals candidate genes for important agronomic traits in Holstein bulls. Commun Biol. 2019 Jun 18;2(212): [12 p.]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-019-0454-y
 
Kaiser HF. The varimax criterion for analytic rotation in factor analysis. Psychometrika. 1958 Sep;23:187-200.
 
Karacaoren B, Kadarmideen HN. Principal component and clustering analysis of functional traits in Swiss dairy cattle. Turk J Vet Anim Sci. 2008 Mar;32(3):163-71.
 
Kern EL, Cobuci JA, Costa CN, Pimentel CMM. Factor analysis of linear type traits and their relation with longevity in Brazilian Holstein cattle. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 2014 Jun;27(6):784-90. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2013.13817
 
Mazza S, Guzzo N, Sartori C, Mantovani R. Factor analysis for genetic evaluation of linear type traits in dual-purpose autochthonous breeds. Animal. 2016 Mar;10(3):372-80.
 
Nemcova E, Stipkova M, Zavadilova L. Genetic parameters for linear type traits in Czech Holstein cattle. Czech J Anim Sci. 2011 Apr;56(4):157-62.
 
Pryce JE, Coffey MP, Brotherstone S. The genetic relationship between calving interval, body condition score and linear type and management traits in registered Holsteins. J Dairy Sci. 2000 Nov;83(11):2664-71.
 
Roveglia C, Niero G, Bobbo T, Penasa M, Finocchiaro R, Visentin G, Lopez-Villalobos N, Cassandro M. Genetic parameters for linear type traits including locomotion in Italian Jersey cattle breed. Livest Sci. 2019 Nov 1;229:131-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2019.09.023
 
Schneider MP, Durr JW, Cue RI, Monardes HG. Impact of type traits on functional herd life of Quebec Holsteins assessed by survival analysis. J Dairy Sci. 2003 Dec 1;86(12):4083-9. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)74021-1
 
Shook GE. Major advances in determining appropriate selection goals. J Dairy Sci. 2006 Apr 1;89(4):1349-61. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72202-0
 
Strapak P, Juhas P, Strapakova E, Halo M. Relation of the length of productive life and the body conformation traits in Slovak Simmental breed. Archiv Tierzucht. 2010 Oct 10;53(4):393-402.
 
Van der Waaij EH, Holzhauer M, Ellen E, Kamphuis C, De Jong G. Genetic parameters for claw disorders in Dutch dairy cattle and correlations with conformation traits. J Dairy Sci. 2005 Oct 1;88(10):3672-8. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)73053-8
 
Zavadilova L, Nemcova E, Stipkova M, Bouska J. Relationships between longevity and conformation traits in Czech Fleckvieh cows. Czech J Anim Sci. 2009 Sep 1;54(9):387-94. https://doi.org/10.17221/1685-CJAS
 
Zavadilova L, Nemcova E, Stipkova M. Effect of type traits on functional longevity of Czech Holstein cows estimated from a Cox proportional hazards model. J Dairy Sci. 2011 Aug 1;94(8):4090-9.
 
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