Study on the associative effects of different proportions of soybean pod, alfalfa and concentrate on the diets at different ratio of concentrate to roughage in vitro

Yuan J., Wan X.J., Chen G.S. (2020): Study on the associative effects of different proportions of soybean pod, alfalfa and concentrate on the diets at different ratio of concentrate to roughage in vitro. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 65: 389–401.

download PDF

This study aimed to determine the associative effects (AEs) of 28 feed combinations of concentrate/soybean pod/alfalfa at different concentrate-roughage ratios that were incubated for 72 h in single tubes (120 ml) which were added 30 ml rumen buffered fluid. The gas production (GP) at 0, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 h was recorded. A single exponential equation was applied to calculate the GP parameters a (rapid GP), b (slow GP), a + b (GP potential) and c (rate constant of slow GP that can reflect the specific process of GP, rapid and slow GP and GP rate). The AEs were calculated by 72 h GP and weighted estimation value of each combination. After 72 h incubation, pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3–N), dry matter digestibility (DMD), organic matter digestibility (OMD) were determined the incubation fluid and residues. The single-factor AE index (SFAEI) and multiple-factor AE index (MFAEI) were computed. The results showed that the groups 50 : 50 : 0, 40 : 60 : 0, 60 : 20 : 20, 60 : 10 : 30, 50 : 30 : 20, 50 : 20 : 30, 40 : 50 : 10, 30 : 55 : 15, 30 : 40 : 30, 20 : 65 : 15, 20 : 50 : 30 had higher GP72 h, a, b, DMD, OMD, NH3–N, in addition, higher AE of GP, DMD, OMD, total VFA and NH3–N than those of the other groups (P < 0.05 or < 0.01), especially the group 30 : 55 : 15 was optimal. In conclusion, in vitro data reveal reliable fermentability and the highest SFAEI and MFAEI occurred when concentrate, soybean pod and alfalfa were combined at the ratios of 50 : 50 : 0, 40 : 60 : 0, 60 : 20 : 20, 60 : 10 : 30, 50 : 30 : 20, 50 : 20 : 30, 40 : 50 : 10, 30 : 55 : 15, 30 : 40 : 30, 20 : 65 : 15, 20 : 50 : 30.

Abdelhadi LO, Santini FJ, Gagliostro GA. Corn silage or high moisture corn supplements for beef heifers grazing temperate pastures: Effects on performance, ruminal fermentation and in situ pasture digestion. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 2005 Jan 3;118(1-2):63-78.
AOAC. Official methods of analysis. 17th ed. Gaithersburg, USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists; 2003.
Aye Sandar C, Koichiro U, Seiji K. Evaluation of associative effects on ruminal digestion kinetics between pasture and grains using in vitro gas production method. Anim Sci J. 2012 Sep;83(9):650-5.
Broderick GA, Kang JH. Automated simultaneous determination of ammonia and total amino acids in rumen fluid and in vitro media. J Dairy Sci. 1980 Jan;63(1):64-75.
Calsamiglia S, Ferret A, Devant M. Effects of pH and pH fluctuations on microbial fermentation and nutrient flow from a dual-flow continuous culture system. J Dairy Sci. 2002;85(3):574-9.
Djamila D, Rabah A. Study of associative effects of date palm leaves mixed with Aristida pungens and Astragalus gombiformis on the aptitudes of ruminal microbiota in small ruminants. Afr J Biotechnol. 2016 Oct 26;15(43):2424-33.
Dolebo AT, Puchala R, Gipson TA, Dawson LJ, Sahlu T, Goetsch AL. Evaluation of a method to predict negative feedstuff associative effects in meat goats consuming diets with different forage sources and levels of concentrate. J Appl Anim Res. 2017 Aug 8;45(1):470-9.
Fieser BG, Vanzant ES. Interactions between supplement energy source and tall fescue hay maturity on forage utilization by beef steers. J Anim Sci. 2004 Jan;82(1):307-18.
Forbes EB, Braman WW, Kriss M, Swift RW, Black A, Frear DE, Kahlenberg OJ, McClure FJ, Voris L. The associative effects of feeds in relation to the utilization of feed energy. J Agric Res. 1933 Apr 15;46(8):753-70.
Goetsch AL, Gipson TA. Review: Use of a web-based nutrient-requirement-calculation system to assess potential influences of various factors on nutrient needs of goats while grazing. Prof Anim Sci. 2014;30(2):192-214.
Grubjesic G, Titze N, Krieg J, Rodehutscord M. Determination of in situ ruminal crude protein and starch degradation values of compound feeds from single feeds. Arch Anim Nutr. 2019 Oct;73(5):414-29.
Grubjesic G, Titze N, Krieg J, Rodehutscord M. Ruminal fermentation characteristics and related feeding values of compound feeds and their constituting single feeds studied by using in vitro techniques. Animal. 2020 Sep;14(9):1829-40.
Gunun P, Wanapat M, Anantasook N. Effects of physical form and urea treatment of rice straw on rumen fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and nutrient digestibility in dairy steers. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 2013 Dec;26(12):1689-97.
Guzatti GC, Duchini PG, Kozloski GV, Niderkorn V, Ribeiro-Filho HMN. Associative effects between red clover and kikuyu grass silage: Proteolysis reduction and synergy during in vitro organic matter degradation. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 2017 Sep;231:107-10.
Haddad G. Associative effects of supplementing barley straw diets with alfalfa hay on rumen environment and nutrient intake and digestibility for ewes. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 2000 Oct 31;87(3-4):163-71.
Li JW. [Dictionary of traditional Chinese medicine]. 2nd ed. Beijing: People’s Health Press; 2004. Chinese.
Lu CD, Potchoiba MJ, Sahlu T, Fernandez JM. Performance of dairy goats fed isonitrogenous diets containing soybean meal or hydrolyzed feather meal during early lactation. Small Rumin Res. 1990 Sep;3(5):425-34.
Maccarana L, Cattani M, Bailoni L. Rumen in vitro gas production of combinations between slowly and rapidly fermentable fiber sources. Agric Conspec Sci. 2013;78(3):229-33.
Menke KH, Steingass H. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and gas production using rumen fluid. Anim Res Dev. 1988;28:47-55.
Mosi AK, Butterworth MH. The voluntary intake and digestibility of cereal crop residues and legume hay for sheep. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 1985;12(4):241-51.
Mould FL. Associative effects of mixed feeds for ruminants [dissertation]. [Aberdeen]: University of Aberdeen; 1982.
Niderkorn V, Martin C, Bernard M, Le Morvan A, Rochette Y, Baumont R. Effect of increasing the proportion of chicory in forage-based diets on intake and digestion by sheep. Animal. 2019 Apr;13(4):718-26.
Orskov ER, McDonald I. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighed according to rate of passage. J Agric Sci. 1979 Apr;92(2):499-503.
Sandoval-Castro CA, Capetillo-Leal C, Cetina-Gongora R, Ramirez-Aviles L. A mixture simplex design to study associative effects with an in vitro gas production technique. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 2002 Oct 25;101(1-4):191-200.
SAS Institute. Statistical Analysis Software for Windows (SAS). Statistics version 7.0 ed. Cary, NC, USA: SAS Institute. 1996.
Singh RK, Dey A, Paul SS, Singh M, Dahiya SS, Punia BS. Associative effects of plant secondary metabolites in modulating in vitro methanogenesis, volatile fatty acids production and fermentation of feed in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Agrofor Syst [Internet]. 2019 May 17 [cited 2020 Apr 20];94:1555-66. Available from:
Stritzler NP, Jensen BB, Wolstrup J. Factors affecting degradation of barley straw in sacco and microbial activity in the rumen of cows fed fibre-rich diets: III. The amount of supplemental energy. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 1998 Feb;70(3):225-38.
Tagliapietra F, Cattani M, Guadagnin M, Haddi ML, Sulas L, Muresu R, Squartini A, Schiavon S, Bailoni L. Associative effects of poor-quality forages combined with food industry byproducts determined in vitro with an automated gas-production system. Anim Prod Sci. 2015;55(9):1117-22.
Tang SX, Tayo GO, Tan ZL, Sun ZH, Wang M, Ren PG, Han XF. Use of in vitro gas production technique to investigate interactions between rice straw, wheat straw, maize stover and alfalfa or clover. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci. 2008 Sep;21(9):1278-85.
Wang JQ. [Methods in ruminant nutrition research]. Beijing: Modern Education Press; 2011. Chinese.
Yang F. [Animal nutrition]. Beijing: Chinese Agricultural Press; 2005. Chinese
Zhang XD, Wang JK, Chen WJ, Liu JX. Associative effects of supplementing rice straw-based diet with cornstarch on intake, digestion, rumen microbes and growth performance of Huzhou lambs. Anim Sci J. 2010 Apr;81(2):172-9.
Zhou XQ, Zhang YD, Zhao M, Zhang T, Zhu D, Bu DP, Wang JQ. Effect of dietary energy source and level on nutrient digestibility, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and milk performance in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2015 Oct;98(10):7209-17.
download PDF

© 2022 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti