Encapsulated blends of essential oils and organic acids improved performance, intestinal morphology, cecal microflora, and jejunal enzyme activity of broilers

https://doi.org/10.17221/172/2018-CJASCitation:Gao Y., Zhang X., Xu L., Peng H., Wang C., Bi Y. (2019): Encapsulated blends of essential oils and organic acids improved performance, intestinal morphology, cecal microflora, and jejunal enzyme activity of broilers. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 64: 189-198.
download PDF

This study investigated effects of encapsulated blends of essential oils (EO) and organic acids (OA) on performance, intestinal morphology, cecal microflora, and jejunal mucosal enzyme activity and secretory IgA (s-IgA) level of broilers. Three hundred one-day-old male broilers were divided into 5 treatments with 5 replicates each. Control group received basal diet. Three additional groups received basal diets supplemented with 150, 200, or 250 mg/kg encapsulated blends of EO and OA. Antibiotic group received basal diet supplemented with 30 mg/kg bacitracin zinc. On days 21 and 70 of trial, 2 broilers from each replicate were weighed, and then blood, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and cecum samples were collected. Results showed that broilers fed blends of EO and OA had greater average daily gain (ADG) (linear, P = 0.043) and gain-to-feed ratio (G : F) (linear, P = 0.052) at day 21 compared to broilers fed the control diet. Blends of EO and OA reduced cecal Escherichia coli and Salmonella level of 21- and 70-day-old broilers (linear, P < 0.01). Jejunum villus height-to-crypt depth ratio (VCR) of 21-day-old broilers was elevated by blends of EO and OA (linear, P = 0.041) compared to control. Blends of EO and OA promoted chymotrypsin activity at day 21 (quadratic, P = 0.014), jejunal mucosal s-IgA content at day 70 (linear, P = 0.012), α-amylase activity at day 70 (quadratic, P = 0.043), and chymotrypsin activity at day 70 (quadratic, P = 0.037). Compared to control, antibiotic group increased ADG at day 21 (P = 0.039), decreased cecal Salmonella level at day 21 (P = 0.018), enhanced jejunum VCR at day 21 (P = 0.049), and elevated jejunal mucosal s-IgA content at day 21 (P = 0.016). It can be stated that EO and OA blends enhanced performance, increased jejunal s-IgA level and enzyme activity, improved intestinal morphology, and balanced intestinal microflora of broilers.

References:
Adil Sheikh, Banday Tufail, Bhat Gulam Ahmad, Mir Masood Saleem, Rehman Manzoor (2010): Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Organic Acids on Performance, Intestinal Histomorphology, and Serum Biochemistry of Broiler Chicken. Veterinary Medicine International, 2010, 1-7  https://doi.org/10.4061/2010/479485
 
Almeida Ferdinando Nielsen, Sulabo Rommel Casilda, Stein Hans Henrik (2013): Effects of a novel bacterial phytase expressed in Aspergillus Oryzae on digestibility of calcium and phosphorus in diets fed to weanling or growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, 4, 8-  https://doi.org/10.1186/2049-1891-4-8
 
Amerah A.M., Péron A., Zaefarian F., Ravindran V. (2011): Influence of whole wheat inclusion and a blend of essential oils on the performance, nutrient utilisation, digestive tract development and ileal microbiota profile of broiler chickens. British Poultry Science, 52, 124-132  https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2010.548791
 
Amerah A. M., Mathis G., Hofacre C. L. (2012): Effect of xylanase and a blend of essential oils on performance and Salmonella colonization of broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella Heidelberg. Poultry Science, 91, 943-947  https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2011-01922
 
Basmacioğlu-Malayoğlu H., Ozdemir P., Bağriyanik H. A. (2016): Influence of an organic acid blend and essential oil blend, individually or in combination, on growth performance, carcass parameters, apparent digestibility, intestinal microflora and intestinal morphology of broilers. British Poultry Science, 57, 227-234  https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2016.1141171
 
Botsoglou N.A., Florou-Paneri P., Christaki E., Fletouris D.J., Spais A.B. (2002): Effect of dietary oregano essential oil on performance of chickens and on iron-induced lipid oxidation of breast, thigh and abdominal fat tissues. British Poultry Science, 43, 223-230  https://doi.org/10.1080/00071660120121436
 
Choct M. (2009): Managing gut health through nutrition. British Poultry Science, 50, 9-15  https://doi.org/10.1080/00071660802538632
 
Du Encun, Wang Weiwei, Gan Liping, Li Zhui, Guo Shuangshuang, Guo Yuming (2016): Effects of thymol and carvacrol supplementation on intestinal integrity and immune responses of broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, 7, -  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40104-016-0079-7
 
Gao Y. Y., Jiang Z. Y., Lin Y. C., Zheng C. T., Zhou G. L., Chen F. (2011): Effects of spray-dried animal plasma on serous and intestinal redox status and cytokines of neonatal piglets1. Journal of Animal Science, 89, 150-157  https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2010-2967
 
Giannenas I., Papaneophytou C. P., Tsalie E., Pappas I., Triantafillou E., Tontis D., Kontopidis G. A. (2014): Dietary Supplementation of Benzoic Acid and Essential Oil Compounds Affects Buffering Capacity of the Feeds, Performance of Turkey Poults and Their Antioxidant Status, pH in the Digestive Tract, Intestinal Microbiota and Morphology. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 27, 225-236  https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2013.13376
 
Goodarzi Boroojeni F., Mader A., Knorr F., Ruhnke I., Röhe I., Hafeez A., Männer K., Zentek J. (2014): The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels on nutrient digestibility in broilers. Poultry Science, 93, 1159-1171  https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2013-03563
 
Goodarzi Boroojeni F., Vahjen W., Mader A., Knorr F., Ruhnke I., Röhe I., Hafeez A., Villodre C., Männer K., Zentek J. (2014): The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels in feed on microbial composition and activity in gastrointestinal tract of broilers. Poultry Science, 93, 1440-1452  https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2013-03763
 
Grilli E., Messina M.R., Tedeschi M., Piva A. (2010): Feeding a microencapsulated blend of organic acids and nature identical compounds to weaning pigs improved growth performance and intestinal metabolism. Livestock Science, 133, 173-175  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2010.06.056
 
Hafeez A., Männer K., Schieder C., Zentek J. (2016): Effect of supplementation of phytogenic feed additives (powdered vs. encapsulated) on performance and nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 95, 622-629  https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pev368
 
Hernandez-Hernandez E., Regalado-Gonzalez C., Vazquez-Landaverde P., Guerrero-Legarreta I., Garcia-Almendarez B.E. (2014): Microencapsulation, chemical characterization, and antimicrobial activity of Mexican (Lippia graveolens H.B.K.) and European (Origanum vulgare L.) oregano essential oils. ScientificWorld Journal, 2014, Article No. 641814.
 
Islam K. M. S., Schaeublin H., Wenk C., Wanner M., Liesegang A. (2012): Effect of dietary citric acid on the performance and mineral metabolism of broiler. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 96, 808-817  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2011.01225.x
 
Jamroz D., Wiliczkiewicz A., Wertelecki T., Orda J., Skorupińska J. (2010): Use of active substances of plant origin in chicken diets based on maize and locally grown cereals. British Poultry Science, 46, 485-493  https://doi.org/10.1080/00071660500191056
 
Jamroz D., Wertelecki T., Houszka M., Kamel C. (2006): Influence of diet type on the inclusion of plant origin active substances on morphological and histochemical characteristics of the stomach and jejunum walls in chicken. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 90, 255-268  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2005.00603.x
 
Jang I.S., Ko Y.H., Kang S.Y., Lee C.Y. (2007): Effect of a commercial essential oil on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity and intestinal microflora population in broiler chickens. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 134, 304-315  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.06.009
 
Karadas F., Pirgozliev V., Rose S.P., Dimitrov D., Oduguwa O., Bravo D. (2014): Dietary essential oils improve the hepatic antioxidative status of broiler chickens. British Poultry Science, 55, 329-334  https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2014.891098
 
Lee K.-W., Everts H., Kappert H.J., Frehner M., Losa R., Beynen A.C. (2010): Effects of dietary essential oil components on growth performance, digestive enzymes and lipid metabolism in female broiler chickens. British Poultry Science, 44, 450-457  https://doi.org/10.1080/0007166031000085508
 
Levy April Waguespack, Kessler James W., Fuller Lorraine, Williams Susan, Mathis Greg F., Lumpkins Brett, Valdez Fernando (2015): Effect of feeding an encapsulated source of butyric acid (ButiPEARL) on the performance of male Cobb broilers reared to 42 d of age. Poultry Science, 94, 1864-1870  https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pev130
 
Liu Yanli, Yang Xin, Xin Hongliang, Chen Si, Yang Chengbo, Duan Yulan, Yang Xiaojun (2017): Effects of a protected inclusion of organic acids and essential oils as antibiotic growth promoter alternative on growth performance, intestinal morphology and gut microflora in broilers. Animal Science Journal, 88, 1414-1424  https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12782
 
Mueller Kristin, Blum Nicole M., Kluge Holger, Mueller Andreas S. (2012): Influence of broccoli extract and various essential oils on performance and expression of xenobiotic- and antioxidant enzymes in broiler chickens. British Journal of Nutrition, 108, 588-602  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114511005873
 
Nava Gerardo M., Attene-Ramos Matias S., Gaskins H. Rex, Richards James D. (2009): Molecular analysis of microbial community structure in the chicken ileum following organic acid supplementation. Veterinary Microbiology, 137, 345-353  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.01.037
 
NOY Y., SKLAN D. (1995): Digestion and Absorption in the Young Chick. Poultry Science, 74, 366-373  https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0740366
 
Paiva Diego, Walk Carrie, McElroy Audrey (2014): Dietary calcium, phosphorus, and phytase effects on bird performance, intestinal morphology, mineral digestibility, and bone ash during a natural necrotic enteritis episode. Poultry Science, 93, 2752-2762  https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2014-04148
 
Piva A., Pizzamiglio V., Morlacchini M., Tedeschi M., Piva G. (2007): Lipid microencapsulation allows slow release of organic acids and natural identical flavors along the swine intestine1,2. Journal of Animal Science, 85, 486-493  https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2006-323
 
Placha I., Takacova J., Ryzner M., Cobanova K., Laukova A., Strompfova V., Venglovska K., Faix S. (2014): Effect of thyme essential oil and selenium on intestine integrity and antioxidant status of broilers. British Poultry Science, 55, 105-114  https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2013.873772
 
Ruhnke I., Röhe I., Goodarzi Boroojeni F., Knorr F., Mader A., Hafeez A., Zentek J. (2015): Feed supplemented with organic acids does not affect starch digestibility, nor intestinal absorptive or secretory function in broiler chickens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 99, 29-35  https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12313
 
Smith David J., Barri Adriana, Herges Grant, Hahn Joe, Yersin Andrew G., Jourdan Alissa (2012): In Vitro Dissolution and in Vivo Absorption of Calcium [1- 14 C]Butyrate in Free or Protected Forms. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60, 3151-3157  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf3001058
 
Tiihonen K., Kettunen H., Bento M.H.L., Saarinen M., Lahtinen S., Ouwehand A.C., Schulze H., Rautonen N. (2010): The effect of feeding essential oils on broiler performance and gut microbiota. British Poultry Science, 51, 381-392  https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2010.496446
 
Weber G. M., Michalczuk M., Huyghebaert G., Juin H., Kwakernaak C., Gracia M. I. (2012): Effects of a blend of essential oil compounds and benzoic acid on performance of broiler chickens as revealed by a meta-analysis of 4 growth trials in various locations. Poultry Science, 91, 2820-2828  https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2012-02243
 
Yang Yuexi, Wang Qi, Diarra Moussa S., Yu Hai, Hua Yufei, Gong Joshua (2016): Functional assessment of encapsulated citral for controlling necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 95, 780-789  https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pev375
 
Zeng Zhaikai, Zhang Sai, Wang Hongliang, Piao Xiangshu (2015): Essential oil and aromatic plants as feed additives in non-ruminant nutrition: a review. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, 6, 7-  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40104-015-0004-5
 
Zhang Z. F., Kim I. H. (2013): Effects of probiotic supplementation in different energy and nutrient density diets on performance, egg quality, excreta microflora, excreta noxious gas emission, and serum cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. Journal of Animal Science, 91, 4781-4787  https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2013-6484
 
download PDF

© 2019 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences