Multi-breed herd approach to detect breed differences in composition and fatty acid profile of cow milk
The objective of the present study was to estimate the effect of breed on milk fatty acid (FA) composition of dairy (Brown Swiss, Holstein-Friesian, and Jersey) and dual-purpose cows (Simmental and Alpine Grey) in multi-breed herds. Information on individual milk samples was collected during routine cow milk testing between 2011 and 2014, and consisted of 285 606 observations from 17 445 cows in 617 herds. Fixed effects included in the mixed model were breed, parity, stage of lactation and the interaction between parity and stage of lactation, and random effects were cow, herd-test-date and residual. Contrast estimates for the studied traits were used to compare specific sets of breeds. Holstein-Friesian produced more milk than the other cattle breeds, with the greatest trans FA and C18:1 and the lowest C18:0 content. Comparison between the specialised dairy vs the dual-purpose breeds highlighted significant differences for all traits except for polyunsaturated FA and trans FA content. Specialised dairy breeds had greater milk saturated FA, short-chain FA, medium-chain FA, C14:0 and C16:0 content, and dual-purpose breeds produced milk with greater content of monounsaturated FA, long-chain FA, C18:0 and C18:1. Results demonstrated that, although specialised dairy produced more milk than dual-purpose breeds, milk FA profile of the latter was more favourable from a human nutrition point of view.
Arnould V. M. -R., Soyeurt H. (2009): Genetic variability of milk fatty acids. Journal of Applied Genetics, 50, 29-39 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03195649
Bauman D.E, Griinari J.M (2001): Regulation and nutritional manipulation of milk fat: low-fat milk syndrome. Livestock Production Science, 70, 15-29 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(01)00195-6
Bilal G., Cue R. I., Mustafa A. F., Hayes J. F. (2014): Effects of parity, age at calving and stage of lactation on fatty acid composition of milk in Canadian Holsteins. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 94, 401-410 https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas2013-172
De Marchi M., Toffanin V., Cassandro M., Penasa M. (2014): Invited review: Mid-infrared spectroscopy as phenotyping tool for milk traits. Journal of Dairy Science, 97, 1171-1186 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2013-6799
Ferlay A., Glasser F., Martin B., Andueza D., Chilliard Y. (2011): Effects of feeding factors and breed on cow milk fatty acid composition: Recent data. Bulletin of the University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Veterinary Medicine, 68, 137–145.
Fleming A., Schenkel F.S., Malchiodi F., Ali R.A., Mallard B., Sargolzaei M., Jamrozik J., Johnston J., Miglior F. (2018): Genetic correlations of mid-infrared-predicted milk fatty acid groups with milk production traits. Journal of Dairy Science, 101, 4295-4306 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-14089
Gilmour A.R., Gogel B.J., Cullis B.R., Welham S.J., Thompson R. (2015): ASReml User Guide. VSN International Ltd, Hemel Hempstead, UK.
Gottardo Paolo, Penasa Mauro, Righi Federico, Lopez-Villalobos Nicolas, Cassandro Martino, De Marchi Massimo (2017): Fatty acid composition of milk from Holstein-Friesian, Brown Swiss, Simmental and Alpine Grey cows predicted by mid-infrared spectroscopy. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 16, 380-389 https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2017.1298411
Gross Josef, van Dorland Hendrika A, Bruckmaier Rupert M, Schwarz Frieder J (2011): Milk fatty acid profile related to energy balance in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Research, 78, 479-488 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029911000550
Hein L., Buitenhuis A.J., Gregersen S.B., Larsen L.B., Demirovic D., Warnecke S., Nielsen N.H., Munk A., Sorensen L.P., Pedersen J., Kargo M. (2016): Detailed milk fatty acid profiling of the Danish dairy cattle population. 40th ICAR Meeting, Puerto Varas, Chile. Available at: https://www.icar.org/Documents/Puerto%20Varas%202016%20Abstracts/files/TS/TS%203/RDY/ICAR%202016%20paper_FINAL%20Niels%20nielsen.pdf (accessed May 1, 2018).
Hein L., Sørensen L.P., Kargo M., Buitenhuis A.J. (2018): Genetic analysis of predicted fatty acid profiles of milk from Danish Holstein and Danish Jersey cattle populations. Journal of Dairy Science, 101, 2148-2157 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-13225
Kelsey J.A., Corl B.A., Collier R.J., Bauman D.E. (2003): The Effect of Breed, Parity, and Stage of Lactation on Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) in Milk Fat from Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 86, 2588-2597 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73854-5
Niero Giovanni, Visentin Giulio, Ton Sofia, De Marchi Massimo, Penasa Mauro, Cassandro Martino (2016): Phenotypic characterisation of milk technological traits, protein fractions, and major mineral and fatty acid composition of Burlina cattle breed *
. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 15, 576-583 https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2016.1250128
Palmquist D.L., Denise Beaulieu A., Barbano D.M. (1993): Feed and Animal Factors Influencing Milk Fat Composition. Journal of Dairy Science, 76, 1753-1771 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77508-6
Penasa M., Tiezzi F., Sturaro A., Cassandro M., De Marchi M. (2014): A comparison of the predicted coagulation characteristics and composition of milk from multi-breed herds of Holstein-Friesian, Brown Swiss and Simmental cows. International Dairy Journal, 35, 6-10 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2013.10.004
Stocco G., Cipolat-Gotet C., Bobbo T., Cecchinato A., Bittante G. (2017): Breed of cow and herd productivity affect milk composition and modeling of coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis. Journal of Dairy Science, 100, 129-145 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-11662
Stoop W.M., van Arendonk J.A.M., Heck J.M.L., van Valenberg H.J.F., Bovenhuis H. (2008): Genetic Parameters for Major Milk Fatty Acids and Milk Production Traits of Dutch Holstein-Friesians. Journal of Dairy Science, 91, 385-394 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0181
Stoop W.M., Bovenhuis H., Heck J.M.L., van Arendonk J.A.M. (2009): Effect of lactation stage and energy status on milk fat composition of Holstein-Friesian cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 92, 1469-1478 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1468
Visentin Giulio, Penasa Mauro, Niero Giovanni, Cassandro Martino, De Marchi Massimo (2018): Phenotypic characterisation of major mineral composition predicted by mid-infrared spectroscopy in cow milk. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 17, 549-556 https://doi.org/10.1080/1828051X.2017.1398055
Wiggans G.R., Shook G.E. (1987): A Lactation Measure of Somatic Cell Count. Journal of Dairy Science, 70, 2666-2672 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(87)80337-5