The analysis of pig carcass classification in Slovakia

https://doi.org/10.17221/231/2020-CJASCitation:

Tomka J., Demo P., Gondeková M., Salagová Z. (2021): The analysis of pig carcass classification in Slovakia. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 66: 78–86

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In the last decade, the pig sector in Slovakia has been changing continuously, especially in regard to the proportion of pigs coming from foreign breeding programs. These changes lead to changes in carcass characteristics and to a change in the distribution of carcasses within the classes of the Union scale for the classification of pig carcasses. Therefore, this study was undertaken to analyse the actual state of pig carcass classification in the Slovak Republic and to investigate the needs of updating the equations for the classification methods and possible steps to improve the quality of pork produced within the country. Results showed that an increased number of pig carcasses originated from Danish breeding program, and also from the Czech Republic and Poland. When compared to carcasses in 2009, these changes resulted in lower backfat thickness and higher muscle thickness of the longissimus dorsi muscle and thus higher lean meat content of carcasses. This results in a higher number of carcasses classified in the S and E classes. Slight differences between two instrumental classification methods were calculated. The study showed the need for updating the equations for classification methods, and also suggested possible further steps in order to improve the quality of pork.

References:
Almeida J, Bressan MC, Santos-Silva J, Moreira O, Bettencourt C, Gama LT. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory attributes of meat from heavy-weight Iberian and F1 Large White × Landrace pigs finished intensively or in free-range conditions. J Anim Sci. 2018 Jul;96(7):2734-46. https://doi.org/10.1093/jas/sky181
 
ATIS – Agrarne trhove informacie Slovenska [Agrarian market information of Slovakia]. Jatocne zvierata a maso [Report on slaughter animals and meat market] [Internet]. Bratislava: Podohospodarska platobna agentura; 2009 [cited 2020 Jun 5]; 14(1-25):5. Available from: https://www.apa.sk/index.php?navID=97. Slovak.
 
ATIS – Agrarne trhove informacie Slovenska [Agrarian market information of Slovakia]. Jatocne zvierata a maso [Report on slaughter animals and meat market] [Internet]. Bratislava: Podohospodarska platobna agentura; 2019 [cited 2020 Jun 5]; 24(1-25):4. Available from: https://www.apa.sk/index.php?navID=97. Slovak.
 
Ba HV, Seo HW, Seong PN, Cho SH, Kang SM, Kim YS, Moon SS, Choi YM, Kim JH. Live weights at slaughter significantly affect the meat quality and flavor components of pork meat. Anim Sci J. 2019 May;90(5):667-79.
 
Bahelka I, Hanusova E, Peskovicova D, Demo P. The effect of sex and slaughter weight on intramuscular fat content and its relationship to carcass traits of pigs. Czech J Anim Sci. 2007 May 1;52(5):122-9. https://doi.org/10.17221/2233-CJAS
 
Candek-Potokar M, Zlender B, Lefaucheur L, Bonneau M. Effects of age and/or weight at slaughter on longissimus dorsi muscle: Biochemical traits and sensory quality in pigs. Meat Sci. 1998 Mar-Apr; 48(3-4):287-300. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(97)00109-5
 
Durkin I, Dadic M, Brkic D, Lukic B, Kusec G, Mikolin M, Jerkovic I. Influence of gender and slaughter weight on meat quality traits of heavy pigs. Acta Argic Slov. 2012 Sep;Suppl 3:211-4.
 
EC 2009. Commission Decision of 20 August 2009 authorising methods for grading pig carcases in Slovakia (notified under document C(2009) 6389) (Only the Slovak text is authentic) (2009/622/EC). Official Journal of the European Union L244/11, 4 p.
 
Engel B, Lambooij E, Buist WG, Vereijken P. Lean meat prediction with HGP, CGM and CSB-Image-Meater, with prediction accuracy evaluated for different proportions of gilts, boars and castrated boars in the pig population. Meat Sci. 2012 Feb;90(2):338-44.
 
Eurostat. Slaughtering in slaughterhouses – Annual data – Pigmeat [Internet]. Brussels: European Commission. [cited 2020 Jun 4]. Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/databrowser/view/APRO_MT_PANN__custom_586631/default/table?lang=en.
 
Font-i-Furnols M, Candek-Potokar M, Daumas G, Gispert M, Judas M, Seynaeve M. Comparison of national ZP equations for lean meat percentage assessment in SEUROP pig classification. Meat Sci. 2016 Mar;113(3):1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.11.004
 
Fortin A, Tong AKW, Robertson WM. Evaluation of three ultrasound instruments, CVT-2, UltraFom 300 and AutoFom for predicting salable meat yield and weight of lean in the primals of pork carcasses. Meat Sci. 2004 Dec;68(4):537-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2004.05.006
 
Janiszewski P, Borzuta K, Lisiak D, Grzeskowiak E, Stanislawski D. Prediction of primal cuts by using an automatic ultrasonic device as a new method for estimating a pig-carcass slaughter and commercial value. Anim Prod Sci. 2019 May 15;59(6):1183-9. https://doi.org/10.1071/AN15625
 
Jansons I, Strazdina V, Anenkova R, Pule D, Skadule I, Melece L. Development of new pig carcasses classification formulas and changes in the lean meat content in Latvian pig population. Agron Res. 2016;14(Spec No 2):1306-14.
 
Knecht D, Duzinski K, Lisiak D. Accuracy of estimating the technological and economic value of pig carcass primal cuts with an optical-needle device. Canad J Anim Sci. 2016 Mar;96(1):37-44. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjas-2015-0048
 
Krska P, Bahelka I, Demo P, Peskovicova D. Meat content in pigs estimated by various methods and compared with objective lean meat content. Czech J Anim Sci. 2002 May 1;47(5):206-11.
 
Kusec G, Durkin I, Petricevic A, Kralik G, Maltar Z, Margeta V. Carcass leanness of pigs in Croatia estimated by EU referent method. Ital J Anim Sci. 2009 Jan 1;8(Suppl 3):249-51. https://doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2009.s3.249
 
Kvapilik J, Pribyl J, Ruzicka Z, Rehak D. Results of pig carcass classification according to SEUROP in the Czech Republic. Czech J Anim Sci. 2009 May 1;54(5):217-28. https://doi.org/10.17221/1662-CJAS
 
Latorre MA, Iguacel F, Sanjoaquin L, Revilla R. Effect of sire breed on carcass characteristics and meat and fat quality of heavy pigs reared outdoor and intended for dry-cured meat production. Animal. 2009 Jan 1;3(3):461-7.
 
Lindahl G, Karlsson AH, Lundstrom K, Andersen HJ. Significance of storage time on degree of blooming and colour stability of pork loin from different crossbreeds. Meat Sci. 2006 Apr 1;72(4):603-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2005.09.018
 
Lisiak D, Borzuta K, Janiszewski P, Magda F, Grzeskowiak E, Strzelecki J, Powalowski K, Lisiak B. Verification of regression equations for estimating pork carcass meatiness using CGM, IM-03, Fat-O-Meat’er II and UltraFom 300 devices. Ann Anim Sci. 2012 Sep 1;12(4):585-96. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10220-012-0049-8
 
Lowell JE, Schunke ED, Harsh BN, Bryan EE, Stahl CA, Dilger AC, Boler DD. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, fresh belly quality, and commercial bacon slicing yields of growing-finishing pigs from sire lines intended for different industry applications. Meat Sci. 2019 Aug 1;154:96-108.
 
Marcoux M, Pomar C, Faucitano L, Brodeur C. The relationship between different pork carcass lean yield definitions and the market carcass value. Meat Sci. 2007 Jan 1;75(1):94-102.
 
Martins JM, Fialho R, Albuquerque A, Neves J, Freitas A, Nunes JT, Charneca R. Growth, blood, carcass and meat quality traits from local pig breeds and their crosses. Animal. 2020 Mar 1;14(3):636-47. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731119002222
 
Mohrmann M, Roehe R, Susenbeth A, Baulain U, Knap PW, Looft H, Plastow GS, Kalm E. Association between body composition of growing pigs determined by magnetic resonance imaging, deuterium dilution technique, and chemical analysis. Meat Sci. 2006 Mar 1;72(3):518-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2005.08.020
 
Nakev J, Popova T. Results of the application of SEUROP for pig carcass classification in Bulgaria. Bulg J Agric Sci. 2019 Sep;25(Suppl 1):17-22.
 
Olsen EV, Candek-Potokar M, Oksama M, Kien S, Lisiak D, Busk H. On-line measurements in pig carcass classification: Repeatability and variation caused by the operator and the copy of instrument. Meat Sci. 2007 Jan 1;75(1):29-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.06.011
 
Picouet PA, Teran F, Gispert M, Font I, Furnols M. Lean content prediction in pig carcasses, loin and ham by computed tomography (CT) using a density model. Meat Sci. 2010 Nov 1;86(3):616-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.04.039
 
Pomar C, Marcoux M. The accuracy of measuring backfat and loin muscle thicknesses on pork carcasses by the Hennessy HGP2, Destron PG-100, CGM and ultrasound CVT grading probes. Canad J Anim Sci. 2005 Dec 1;85(4):481-92. https://doi.org/10.4141/A05-041
 
Sprysl M, Citek J, Stupka R. Interaction of selected production indicators of the economics of pork production. Czech J Anim Sci. 2010 Jan;55(1):1-10. https://doi.org/10.17221/1705-CJAS
 
Valis L, Pulkrabek J, Pavlik J, Vitek M, Wolf J. Conformation and meatiness of pork belly. Czech J Anim Sci. 2005.
 
Almeida J, Bressan MC, Santos-Silva J, Moreira O, Bettencourt C, Gama LT. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory attributes of meat from heavy-weight Iberian and F1 Large White × Landrace pigs finished intensively or in free-range conditions. J Anim Sci. 2018 Jul;96(7):2734-46. https://doi.org/10.1093/jas/sky181
 
ATIS – Agrarne trhove informacie Slovenska [Agrarian market information of Slovakia]. Jatocne zvierata a maso [Report on slaughter animals and meat market] [Internet]. Bratislava: Podohospodarska platobna agentura; 2009 [cited 2020 Jun 5]; 14(1-25):5. Available from: https://www.apa.sk/index.php?navID=97. Slovak.
 
ATIS – Agrarne trhove informacie Slovenska [Agrarian market information of Slovakia]. Jatocne zvierata a maso [Report on slaughter animals and meat market] [Internet]. Bratislava: Podohospodarska platobna agentura; 2019 [cited 2020 Jun 5]; 24(1-25):4. Available from: https://www.apa.sk/index.php?navID=97. Slovak.
 
Ba HV, Seo HW, Seong PN, Cho SH, Kang SM, Kim YS, Moon SS, Choi YM, Kim JH. Live weights at slaughter significantly affect the meat quality and flavor components of pork meat. Anim Sci J. 2019 May;90(5):667-79.
 
Bahelka I, Hanusova E, Peskovicova D, Demo P. The effect of sex and slaughter weight on intramuscular fat content and its relationship to carcass traits of pigs. Czech J Anim Sci. 2007 May 1;52(5):122-9. https://doi.org/10.17221/2233-CJAS
 
Candek-Potokar M, Zlender B, Lefaucheur L, Bonneau M. Effects of age and/or weight at slaughter on longissimus dorsi muscle: Biochemical traits and sensory quality in pigs. Meat Sci. 1998 Mar-Apr; 48(3-4):287-300. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(97)00109-5
 
Durkin I, Dadic M, Brkic D, Lukic B, Kusec G, Mikolin M, Jerkovic I. Influence of gender and slaughter weight on meat quality traits of heavy pigs. Acta Argic Slov. 2012 Sep;Suppl 3:211-4.
 
EC 2009. Commission Decision of 20 August 2009 authorising methods for grading pig carcases in Slovakia (notified under document C(2009) 6389) (Only the Slovak text is authentic) (2009/622/EC). Official Journal of the European Union L244/11, 4 p.
 
Engel B, Lambooij E, Buist WG, Vereijken P. Lean meat prediction with HGP, CGM and CSB-Image-Meater, with prediction accuracy evaluated for different proportions of gilts, boars and castrated boars in the pig population. Meat Sci. 2012 Feb;90(2):338-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.07.020
 
Eurostat. Slaughtering in slaughterhouses – Annual data – Pigmeat [Internet]. Brussels: European Commission. [cited 2020 Jun 4]. Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/databrowser/view/APRO_MT_PANN__custom_586631/default/table?lang=en.
 
Font-i-Furnols M, Candek-Potokar M, Daumas G, Gispert M, Judas M, Seynaeve M. Comparison of national ZP equations for lean meat percentage assessment in SEUROP pig classification. Meat Sci. 2016 Mar;113(3):1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.11.004
 
Fortin A, Tong AKW, Robertson WM. Evaluation of three ultrasound instruments, CVT-2, UltraFom 300 and AutoFom for predicting salable meat yield and weight of lean in the primals of pork carcasses. Meat Sci. 2004 Dec;68(4):537-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2004.05.006
 
Janiszewski P, Borzuta K, Lisiak D, Grzeskowiak E, Stanislawski D. Prediction of primal cuts by using an automatic ultrasonic device as a new method for estimating a pig-carcass slaughter and commercial value. Anim Prod Sci. 2019 May 15;59(6):1183-9. https://doi.org/10.1071/AN15625
 
Jansons I, Strazdina V, Anenkova R, Pule D, Skadule I, Melece L. Development of new pig carcasses classification formulas and changes in the lean meat content in Latvian pig population. Agron Res. 2016;14(Spec No 2):1306-14.
 
Knecht D, Duzinski K, Lisiak D. Accuracy of estimating the technological and economic value of pig carcass primal cuts with an optical-needle device. Canad J Anim Sci. 2016 Mar;96(1):37-44.
 
Krska P, Bahelka I, Demo P, Peskovicova D. Meat content in pigs estimated by various methods and compared with objective lean meat content. Czech J Anim Sci. 2002 May 1;47(5):206-11.
 
Kusec G, Durkin I, Petricevic A, Kralik G, Maltar Z, Margeta V. Carcass leanness of pigs in Croatia estimated by EU referent method. Ital J Anim Sci. 2009 Jan 1;8(Suppl 3):249-51. https://doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2009.s3.249
 
Kvapilik J, Pribyl J, Ruzicka Z, Rehak D. Results of pig carcass classification according to SEUROP in the Czech Republic. Czech J Anim Sci. 2009 May 1;54(5):217-28. https://doi.org/10.17221/1662-CJAS
 
Latorre MA, Iguacel F, Sanjoaquin L, Revilla R. Effect of sire breed on carcass characteristics and meat and fat quality of heavy pigs reared outdoor and intended for dry-cured meat production. Animal. 2009 Jan 1;3(3):461-7. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731108003595
 
Lindahl G, Karlsson AH, Lundstrom K, Andersen HJ. Significance of storage time on degree of blooming and colour stability of pork loin from different crossbreeds. Meat Sci. 2006 Apr 1;72(4):603-12.
 
Lisiak D, Borzuta K, Janiszewski P, Magda F, Grzeskowiak E, Strzelecki J, Powalowski K, Lisiak B. Verification of regression equations for estimating pork carcass meatiness using CGM, IM-03, Fat-O-Meat’er II and UltraFom 300 devices. Ann Anim Sci. 2012 Sep 1;12(4):585-96. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10220-012-0049-8
 
Lowell JE, Schunke ED, Harsh BN, Bryan EE, Stahl CA, Dilger AC, Boler DD. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, fresh belly quality, and commercial bacon slicing yields of growing-finishing pigs from sire lines intended for different industry applications. Meat Sci. 2019 Aug 1;154:96-108.
 
Marcoux M, Pomar C, Faucitano L, Brodeur C. The relationship between different pork carcass lean yield definitions and the market carcass value. Meat Sci. 2007 Jan 1;75(1):94-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.07.001
 
Martins JM, Fialho R, Albuquerque A, Neves J, Freitas A, Nunes JT, Charneca R. Growth, blood, carcass and meat quality traits from local pig breeds and their crosses. Animal. 2020 Mar 1;14(3):636-47.
 
Mohrmann M, Roehe R, Susenbeth A, Baulain U, Knap PW, Looft H, Plastow GS, Kalm E. Association between body composition of growing pigs determined by magnetic resonance imaging, deuterium dilution technique, and chemical analysis. Meat Sci. 2006 Mar 1;72(3):518-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2005.08.020
 
Nakev J, Popova T. Results of the application of SEUROP for pig carcass classification in Bulgaria. Bulg J Agric Sci. 2019 Sep;25(Suppl 1):17-22.
 
Olsen EV, Candek-Potokar M, Oksama M, Kien S, Lisiak D, Busk H. On-line measurements in pig carcass classification: Repeatability and variation caused by the operator and the copy of instrument. Meat Sci. 2007 Jan 1;75(1):29-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.06.011
 
Picouet PA, Teran F, Gispert M, Font I, Furnols M. Lean content prediction in pig carcasses, loin and ham by computed tomography (CT) using a density model. Meat Sci. 2010 Nov 1;86(3):616-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.04.039
 
Pomar C, Marcoux M. The accuracy of measuring backfat and loin muscle thicknesses on pork carcasses by the Hennessy HGP2, Destron PG-100, CGM and ultrasound CVT grading probes. Canad J Anim Sci. 2005 Dec 1;85(4):481-92.
 
Sprysl M, Citek J, Stupka R. Interaction of selected production indicators of the economics of pork production. Czech J Anim Sci. 2010 Jan;55(1):1-10. https://doi.org/10.17221/1705-CJAS
 
Valis L, Pulkrabek J, Pavlik J, Vitek M, Wolf J. Conformation and meatiness of pork belly. Czech J Anim Sci. 2005.
 
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