The response of fast-, medium- and slow-growing chickens to a low protein diet

https://doi.org/10.17221/260/2020-CJASCitation:

Chodová D., Tůmová E., Ketta M. (2021): The response of fast-, medium- and slow-growing chickens to a low protein diet. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 66: 97–105

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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two dietary protein levels on performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality parameters in fast- (Ross 308), medium- (JA757), and slow-growing (ISA Dual) chickens to assess the interaction of the two factors. Each genotype was divided into a control group fed a commercial type of feed mixture and an experimental group fed a low-protein diet (LP). The trial was terminated after a common period of fattening of each genotype, and 20 chickens per group (sex ratio 1 : 1) were selected for the carcass and meat analysis. The results indicated that the LP diet decreased growth (P < 0.001) and increased feed consumption (P < 0.001) more in the fast-growing than in the slow-growing genotypes; however, reduced mortality was detected in fast-growing chickens. The LP diet had a negative effect on the European performance efficiency factor (P < 0.001) in fast- (–10%) and medium-growing (–6%) but not in slow-growing chickens. The main effect of the genotype on the carcass characteristics included the highest (P < 0.001) dressing out and breast percentage in fast-growing chickens and the highest (P < 0.001) percentage of thigh and abdominal fat in the slow-growing genotype. The LP diet had only a minor effect on the carcass traits. Regarding meat quality characteristics, slow-growing chickens were characterized by higher contents of dry matter (P < 0.001) and crude protein (P < 0.001) and lower contents of ether extract (P < 0.001) and cholesterol (P < 0.001) compared to medium- and fast-growing chickens. The individual effects of the genotypes were manifested by the largest cross-sectional area of the muscle fibres of pectoralis major in fast-growing chickens (P < 0.001). The results of the present study indicate a significant interaction of the dietary protein levels and genotypes in growth performance and a negligible effect on the carcass composition and physical and chemical quality of meat

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Cullere M, Schiavone A, Dabbou S, Gasco L, Zotte AD. Meat quality and sensory traits of finisher broiler chickens fed with black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) larvae fat as alternative fat source. Animals. 2019 Apr 2;9(3): [15 p.].  https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040140
 
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Jlali M, Gigaud V, Metayer-Coustard S, Sellier N, Tesseraud S, le Bihan-Duval E, Berri C. Modulation of glycogen and breast meat processing ability by nutrition in chickens: Effect of crude protein level in 2 chicken genotypes. J Anim Sci. 2012 Feb 1;90(2):447-55.  https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2011-4405
 
Kreuzer M, Muller S, Mazzolini L, Messikommer RE, Gangnat IDM. Are dual-purpose and male layer chickens more resilient against a low-protein-low-soybean diet than slow-growing broilers? Br Poult Sci. 2020 Jan 2;61(1):33-42.
 
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N’Dri AL, Sellier N, Tixier-Boichard M, Beaumont C, Mignon-Grasteau S. Genotype by environment interactions in relation to growth traits in slow growing chickens. Genet Sel Evol. 2007 Sep-Oct;39(5):513-28.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1297-9686-39-5-513
 
Ndazigaruye G, Kim D, Kang C, Kang K, Joo Y, Lee S, Lee K. Effects of low-protein diets and exogenous protease on growth performance, carcass traits, intestinal morphology, cecal volatile fatty acids and serum parameters in broilers. Animals. 2019 May 9;9(5): [16 p.].
 
Ozbek M, Petek M, Ardicli S. Physical quality characteristics of breast and leg meat of slow- and fast-growing broilers raised in different housing systems. Arch Anim Breed. 2020 Sep 14;63(2):337-44.
 
Rehfeldt C, Henning M, Fiedler I. Consequences of pig domestication for skeletal muscle growth and cellularity. Livest Sci. 2008 Jul 1;116(1-3):30-41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.08.017
 
Saxena R, Saxena VK, Tripathi V, Mir NA, Dev K, Begum J, Agarwal R, Goel A. Dynamics of gene expression of hormones involved in the growth of broiler chickens in response to the dietary protein and energy changes. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2020 Mar 1;288: [9 p.].  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2019.113377
 
Sirri F, Castellini C, Bianchi M, Petracci M, Meluzzi A, Franchini A. Effect of fast-, medium- and slow-growing strains on meat quality of chickens reared under the organic farming method. Animal. 2011 Jan 1;5(2):312-9.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S175173111000176X
 
Tesseraud S, Maaa N, Peresson R, Chagneau AM. Relative responses of protein turnover in three different skeletal muscles to dietary lysine deficiency in chicks. Br Poult Sci. 1996 Jul 1;37(3):641-50.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00071669608417893
 
Tumova E, Chodova D. Performance and changes in body composition of broiler chickens depending on feeding regime and sex. Czech J Anim Sci. 2018 Dec 6;63(12):518-25.  https://doi.org/10.17221/125/2018-CJAS
 
Urban J, Rohe I, Zentek J. Effect of protein restriction on performance, nutrient digestibility and whole body composition of male Lohmann Dual chickens. Eur Poult Sci. 2018 Jan;82: [12 p.].
 
Verdiglione R, Cassandro M. Characterization of muscle fiber type in the pectoralis major muscle of slow-growing local and commercial chicken strains. Poult Sci. 2013 Sep 1;92(9):2433-7.  https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2013-03013
 
Wang W, Wu Z, Dai Z, Yang Y, Wang J, Wu G. Glycine metabolism in animals and humans: Implications for nutrition and health. Amino Acids. 2013 Sep 1;45(3):463-77. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-013-1493-1
 
Yalcin S, Ozkul H, Ozkan S, Gous R, Yasa I, Babacanoglu E. Effect of dietary protein regime on meat quality traits and carcase nutrient content of broilers from two commercial genotypes. Br Poult Sci. 2010 Oct 1;51(5):621-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2010.520302
 
AOAC – Association of Official Analytic Chemists. Official Method of Analysis. 16th ed. Washington, DC, USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists; 1995.
 
Baeza E, Arnould C, Jlali M, Chartrin P, Gigaud V, Mercerand F, Durand C, Meteau K, le Bihan-Duval E, Berri C. Influence of increasing slaughter age of chickens on meat quality, welfare, and technical and economic results. J Anim Sci. 2012 Jun;90(6):2003-13.  https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2011-4192
 
Berri C, Besnard J, Relandeau C. Increasing dietary lysine increases final pH and decreases drip loss of broiler breast meat. Poult Sci. 2008 Mar 1;87(3):480-4.  https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2007-00226
 
Cullere M, Schiavone A, Dabbou S, Gasco L, Zotte AD. Meat quality and sensory traits of finisher broiler chickens fed with black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) larvae fat as alternative fat source. Animals. 2019 Apr 2;9(3): [15 p.].  https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9040140
 
Dal Bosco A, Mugnai C, Amato MG, Piottoli L, Cartoni A, Castellini C. Effect of slaughtering age in different commercial chicken genotypes reared according to the organic system: 1. Welfare, carcass and meat traits. Ital J Anim Sci. 2014 Feb 17;13(2):467-72.  https://doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2014.3308
 
Delezie E, Bruggeman V, Swennen Q, Decuypere E, Huyghebaert G. The impact of nutrient density in terms of energy and/or protein on live performance, metabolism and carcass composition of female and male broiler chickens of two commercial broiler strains. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr. 2010 Aug;94(4):509-18.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2009.00936.x
 
Devatkal SK, Naveena BM, Kotaiah T. Quality, composition, and consumer evaluation of meat from slow-growing broilers relative to commercial broilers. Poult Sci. 2019 Nov 1;98(11):6177-86.
 
Dogan SC, Baylan M, Bulancak A, Ayasan T. Differences in performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality between fast- and slow-growing broiler genotypes. Prog Nutr. 2019 Sep;21(3):558-65.
 
Fanatico AC, Pillai PB, Emmert JL, Owens CM. Meat quality of slow- and fast-growing chicken genotypes fed low-nutrient or standard diets and raised indoors or with outdoor access. Poult Sci. 2007 Oct 1;86(10):2245-55.
 
Grashorn MA. Fattening performance, carcass and meat quality of slow and fast growing broiler strains under intensive and extensive feeding conditions. In: Proceedings of the 12th European Poultry Conference; 2006 Sep 10-14; Verona, Italy. Bologna: World’s Poultry Science Associationt, Italian Branch; 2006. 249 p.
 
Jlali M, Gigaud V, Metayer-Coustard S, Sellier N, Tesseraud S, le Bihan-Duval E, Berri C. Modulation of glycogen and breast meat processing ability by nutrition in chickens: Effect of crude protein level in 2 chicken genotypes. J Anim Sci. 2012 Feb 1;90(2):447-55.  https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2011-4405
 
Kreuzer M, Muller S, Mazzolini L, Messikommer RE, Gangnat IDM. Are dual-purpose and male layer chickens more resilient against a low-protein-low-soybean diet than slow-growing broilers? Br Poult Sci. 2020 Jan 2;61(1):33-42.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2019.1671957
 
Lambertz C, Wuthijaree K, Gauly M. Performance, behavior, and health of male broilers and laying hens of 2 dual-purpose chicken genotypes. Poult Sci. 2018 Oct 1;97(10):3564-76.  https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pey223
 
Lonergan SM, Deeb N, Fedler CA, Lamont SJ. Breast meat quality and composition in unique chicken populations. Poult Sci. 2003 Dec 1;82(12):1990-4.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/82.12.1990
 
Metzger S, Odermatt M, Szabo A, Radnai I, Biro-Nemeth E, Nagy I, Szendro Z. Effect of age and body weight on carcass traits and meat composition of rabbits. Arch Anim Breed. 2011 Oct 10;54(4):406-18.  https://doi.org/10.5194/aab-54-406-2011
 
Migdal L, Palka S, Kmiecik M, Derewicka O. Association of polymorphisms in the GH and GHR genes with growth and carcass traits in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Czech J Anim Sci. 2019 Jun 18;64(6):255-64.  https://doi.org/10.17221/27/2019-CJAS
 
Mosca F, Kuster CA, Stella S, Farina G, Madeddu M, Zaniboni L, Cerolini S. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat composition of Milanino chickens fed on diets with different protein concentrations. Br Poult Sci. 2016 Jul 3;57(4):531-7.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2016.1174768
 
Mueller S, Kreuzer M, Siegrist M, Mannale K, Messikommer RE, Gangnat IDM. Carcass and meat quality of dual-purpose chickens (Lohmann Dual, Belgian Malines, Schweizerhuhn) in comparison to broiler and layer chicken types. Poult Sci. 2018 Sep 1;97(9):3325-36.  https://doi.org/10.3382/ps/pey172
 
N’Dri AL, Sellier N, Tixier-Boichard M, Beaumont C, Mignon-Grasteau S. Genotype by environment interactions in relation to growth traits in slow growing chickens. Genet Sel Evol. 2007 Sep-Oct;39(5):513-28.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1297-9686-39-5-513
 
Ndazigaruye G, Kim D, Kang C, Kang K, Joo Y, Lee S, Lee K. Effects of low-protein diets and exogenous protease on growth performance, carcass traits, intestinal morphology, cecal volatile fatty acids and serum parameters in broilers. Animals. 2019 May 9;9(5): [16 p.].
 
Ozbek M, Petek M, Ardicli S. Physical quality characteristics of breast and leg meat of slow- and fast-growing broilers raised in different housing systems. Arch Anim Breed. 2020 Sep 14;63(2):337-44.  https://doi.org/10.5194/aab-63-337-2020
 
Rehfeldt C, Henning M, Fiedler I. Consequences of pig domestication for skeletal muscle growth and cellularity. Livest Sci. 2008 Jul 1;116(1-3):30-41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.08.017
 
Saxena R, Saxena VK, Tripathi V, Mir NA, Dev K, Begum J, Agarwal R, Goel A. Dynamics of gene expression of hormones involved in the growth of broiler chickens in response to the dietary protein and energy changes. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2020 Mar 1;288: [9 p.].  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2019.113377
 
Sirri F, Castellini C, Bianchi M, Petracci M, Meluzzi A, Franchini A. Effect of fast-, medium- and slow-growing strains on meat quality of chickens reared under the organic farming method. Animal. 2011 Jan 1;5(2):312-9.
 
Tesseraud S, Maaa N, Peresson R, Chagneau AM. Relative responses of protein turnover in three different skeletal muscles to dietary lysine deficiency in chicks. Br Poult Sci. 1996 Jul 1;37(3):641-50.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00071669608417893
 
Tumova E, Chodova D. Performance and changes in body composition of broiler chickens depending on feeding regime and sex. Czech J Anim Sci. 2018 Dec 6;63(12):518-25.  https://doi.org/10.17221/125/2018-CJAS
 
Urban J, Rohe I, Zentek J. Effect of protein restriction on performance, nutrient digestibility and whole body composition of male Lohmann Dual chickens. Eur Poult Sci. 2018 Jan;82: [12 p.].
 
Verdiglione R, Cassandro M. Characterization of muscle fiber type in the pectoralis major muscle of slow-growing local and commercial chicken strains. Poult Sci. 2013 Sep 1;92(9):2433-7.  https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2013-03013
 
Wang W, Wu Z, Dai Z, Yang Y, Wang J, Wu G. Glycine metabolism in animals and humans: Implications for nutrition and health. Amino Acids. 2013 Sep 1;45(3):463-77.
 
Yalcin S, Ozkul H, Ozkan S, Gous R, Yasa I, Babacanoglu E. Effect of dietary protein regime on meat quality traits and carcase nutrient content of broilers from two commercial genotypes. Br Poult Sci. 2010 Oct 1;51(5):621-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2010.520302
 
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