Intake and digestibility in cattle grazing temperate grass associated with legume and/or energetic supplementation

Lorensetti C.A., da Silveira M.F., Farenzena R., Lazzarotto E.F.C.O., Lourenço J.M., Michailoff A.A., Francisco L.F., Sordi A.C.B. (2021): Intake and digestibility in cattle grazing temperate grass associated with legume and/or energetic supplementation. Czech J. Anim. Sci. 66 (2021): 349-358

download PDF

The intercrop between grasses and legumes is an alternative to maintain and increase animal production. The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of grass-legume mixtures with or without supplementations on rumen fermentation, nutrient intake, and microbial protein synthesis. Six Holstein steers fitted with ruminal cannula were kept in a double 3 × 3 Latin square design. The treatments were: 1) oat, annual ryegrass, and supplement (GS), 2) oat, annual ryegrass, and vetch (GL), 3) oat, annual ryegrass, vetch, and supplement (GLS). Supplementation of ground maize was given daily at 11 h at 1% of body weight. Total digestible nutrient intake was higher in steers fed GS and GLS. Animals on GL ingested higher concentrations of nitrogen (N) compared to animals on GS and GLS diets. Ruminal pH and ammonia concentration were higher in GL. Grass-legume mixtures and supplements showed higher concentrations of sugar, α-amino acids, and peptides. The ruminal fermentative parameters, ruminal pH, ammonia, and sugars ranged cubically across the day. Microbial protein synthesis was similar amongst the treatments. Animals exclusively consuming temperate grass produce higher ruminal pH and ammonia concentrations. Therefore, using temperate legumes in pasture systems can be included in the cattle diet in lieu of utilizing energy supplements.

Alvares CC, Stape JL, Sentelhas PC, de Moraes Goncalves JL, Sparovek G. Koppen’s climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorol Z. 2013 Dec 1;22(6):711-28.
Amaral GA, Kozloski GV, Santos AB, Castagnino DS, Fluck AC, Farenzena R, Alves TP, Mesquita FR. Metabolizable protein and energy supply in lambs fed annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) supplemented with sources of protein and energy. J Agric Sci. 2011 Aug;149(4):519-27.
AOAC – Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. Gaithesburg, MD, USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists; 1997.
Aschenbach JR, Penner GB, Stumpff F, Gabel G. Ruminant nutrition symposium: Role of fermentation acid absorption in the regulation of ruminal pH. J Anim Sci. 2011 Apr 1;89(4):1092-107.
Bailey EA, Titgemeyer EC, Olson KC, Brake DW, Jones ML, Anderson DE. Effects of supplemental energy and protein on forage digestion and urea kinetics in growing beef cattle. J Anim Sci. 2012 Oct 1;90(10):3492-504.
Barcellos AO, Ramos AKB, Vilela L, Martha GB Jr. Sustentabilidade da producao animal baseada em pastagens consorciadas e no emprego de leguminosas exclusivas, na forma de banco de proteina, nos tropicos brasileiros [Sustainability of animal production based on intercropped pastures and in the use of exclusive legumes, in the form of a protein bank, in the Brazilian tropics]. R Bras Zootec. 2008 Jul;37:51-67. Portuguese.
Castro E, Mojica JE, Leon JM, Pabon ML, Carulla JE, Cardenas EA. Productividad de pasturas y produccion de leche bovina bajo pastoreo de graminea y graminea + Lotus uliginosus en Mosquera, Cundinamarca [Pasture productivity and bovine milk production grazing of grass and grass + Lotus uliginosus in Mosquera, Cundina]. Rev Med Vet Zoot. 2008 Jan;55(1):9-21. Spanish with English abstract.
Chen XB, Gomes MJ. Estimation of microbial protein supply to sheep and cattle based on urinary excretion of purine derivatives – An overview of technical details. Bucksburn, UK: Rowett Research Institute; 1992. 21 p.
Chizzotti ML, de Campos Valadares Filho S, Valadares RFD, Chizzotti FHM, Tedeschi LO. Determination of creatinine excretion and evaluation of spot urine sampling in Holstein cattle. Liv Sci. 2008 Feb 1;113(2-3):218-25.
Clark JH, Klusmeyer TH, Cameron MR. Microbial protein synthesis and flows of nitrogen fractions to the duodenum of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 1992 Jan;75:2304-23.
Costa VAC, Detmann E, Paulino MF, Valadares Filho SC, Carvalho IPC, Monteiro LP. Consumo e digestibilidade em bovinos em pastejo durante o periodo das aguas sob suplementacao com fontes de compostos nitrogenados e de carboidratos [Intake and digestibility in cattle under grazing during rainy season and supplemented with diferente sources of nitrogenous compounds and carbohydrates]. R Bras Zootec. 2011;40:1788-98. Portuguese with English abstract.
Da Silva SC, Gimenes FMA, Sarmento DOL, Sbrissia AF, Oliveira DE, Hernandez-Garay A, Pires AV. Grazing behaviour, herbage intake and animal performance of beef cattle heifers on marandu palisade grass subjected to intensities of continuous stocking management. J Agric Sci. 2013 Oct;151(5):727-39.
Da Trindade JK, Neves FP, Pinto CE, Bremm C, Mezzalira JC, Nadin LB, Genro TCM, Gonda HL, Carvalho PCF. Daily forage intake by cattle on natural grassland: Response to forage allowance and sward structure. Rangel Ecol Manag. 2016 Jan 1;69(1):59-67.
Darwin, Barnes A, Cord-Ruwisch R. In vitro rumen fermentation of soluble and non-soluble polymeric carbohydrates in relation to ruminal acidosis. Ann Microbiol. 2018 Jan;68(1):1-8.
Detmann E, Valente EEL, Batista ED, Huhtanen P. An evaluation of the performance and efficiency of nitrogen utilization in cattle fed tropical grass pastures with suplementation. Livest Sci. 2014 Apr 1;162:141-53.
Dewhurst RJ, Davies DR, Merry RJ. Microbial protein supply from the rumen. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 2000 May 30;85(1-2):1-21.
Dubois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Rebers PA, Smith F. Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal Chem. 1956 Mar 1;28(3):350-6.
Fujihara T, Orskov ER, Reeds PJ. The effect of protein infusion on urinary excretion of purine derivatives in ruminants nourished by intragastric nutrition. J Agric Sci. 1987 Aug;109(1):7-12.
Gierus M, Kleen J, Loges R, Taube F. Forage legume species determine the nutritional quality of binary mixtures with perennial ryegrass in the first production year. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 2012 Mar 30;172(3-4):150-61.
Goering HK, Van Soest PJ. Forage fiber analysis (apparatus, reagents, procedures and some applications). Washington, DC: Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. 1970 Dec. 20 p.
Hentz F, Kozloski GV, Orlandi T, Avila SC, Castagnino PS, Stefanello CM, Pacheco GFE. Intake and digestion by wethers fed a tropical grass-based diet supplemented with increasing levels of canola meal. Livest. Sci. 2012 Aug 1;147(1-3):89-95.
Hirai MMG, Menezes LFG, Kuss F, Paris W, Lisbinski E, Oliveira ON, Nazario D, Schimtz GR. Terminacao de novilhos em pastagem de aveia branca consorciada com leguminosa ou associada a suplementacao energetica [Finishing steers on oat pasture intercropped with legumes or receiving energetic supplementation]. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec. 2015 Jul-Aug;67(4):1141-9. Portuguese with English abstract.
Kaur R, Nandra KS, Garcia SC, Fulkerson WJ, Horadagoda A. Efficiency of utilization of differents diets with contrasting forages and concentrate when fed to sheep in a discontinuous feeding pattern. Livest Sci. 2008 Dec 1;119(1-3):77-86.
Kozloski GV, Netto DP, Oliveira L, Maixner AR, Leite DT, Maccari M, Brondani IL, Sanchez LMB, Quadros FLF. Uso de oxido de cromo como indicador da excrecao fecal de bovinos em pastejo: Variacao das estimativas em funcao do horario de amostragem [Chromium oxide use as a marker for measuring fecal production of grazing cattle: Estimative variations due to sampling schedule]. Cienc Rural. 2006 Mar-Apr;36(2):599-603. Portuguese with English abstract.
Lazzarotto EFCO, Menezes LFG, Paris W, Molinete ML, Schmitz GR, Baraviera JHI, Farenzena R, Paula AL. Backgrounding steers on temperate grasses mixed with vetch and/or using energy supplementation. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 2019 Jun;32(6):800-7.
Licitra G, Hernandez TM, Van Soest PJ. Standardization of procedures for nitrogen fractionation of ruminant feeds. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 1996 Mar 1;57(4):347-58.
Mangaravite JCS, Passos RR, Andrade FV, Burak DL, Mendonca ES. Phytomass production and nutrient accumulation by green manure species. Rev Ceres. 2014;61(5):732-9.
Mertens DR. Creating a system for meeting the fiber requirements of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 1997 Jul 1;80(7):1463-81.
NRC – National Research Council. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. 7th ed. Washington, DC: Washington National Academy Press; 2001. 381 p.
Palmer DW, Peters JT. Automated determination of free amino groups in serum and plasma using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonate. Clin Chem. 1969 Sep 1;15(9):891-901.
Pond KR, Ellis WC, Matis JH, Deswysen AG. Passage of chromium-mordanted and rare-earth-labeled fiber: Time dosing kinetics. J Anim Sci. 1989 Apr 1;67(4):1020-8.
Ramirez-Restrepo CA, Barry TN. Alternative temperate forages containing secondary compounds for improving sustainable productivity in grazing ruminants. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 2005 May 28;120(3-4):179-201.
Reis RA, Ruggieri AC, Casagrande DR, Pascoa AG. Suplementacao da dieta de bovinos de corte como estrategia do manejo das pastagens [Supplementation of beef cattle as strategy of pasture management]. R Bras Zootec. 2009 Jul;38:147-59. Portuguese with English abstract.
Robertson JB, Van Soest PJ. The detergent system of analysis. In: James WPT, Theander O, editors. The analysis of dietary fiber in food. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1981. p. 123-58.
Tebot I, Cajarville C, Repetto JL, Cirio A. Supplementation with non-fibrous carbohydrates reduced fiber digestibility and did not improve microbial protein synthesis in sheep fed fresh forage of two nutritive values. Animal. 2012 Apr;6(4):617-23.
Tilley JMA, Terry RA. A two-stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. Grass Forage Sci. 1963 Jun;18(2):104-11.
Van Soest PJ. Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. 2th ed. Ithaca: Cornell University Press; 1994. 476 p.
Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J Dairy Sci. 1991 Oct 1;74(10):3583-97.
Verbic J, Chen XB, Macleod NA, Orskov ER. Excretion of purine derivatives by ruminants. Effect of microbial nucleic acid infusion on purine derivatives excretion by steers. J Agric Sci. 1990 Jun;114(3):243-8.
Weatherburn MW. Phenol-hypochlorite reaction for determination of ammonia. Anal Chem. 1967 Jul 1;39(8):971-4.
download PDF

© 2022 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti