Expression patterns of GHRL, GHSR, LEP, LEPR, SST and CCK genes in the gastrointestinal tissues of Tibetan and Yorkshire pigs

https://doi.org/10.17221/40/2018-CJASCitation:Sun W., Cheng C., Liu R., Chen Y., Zeng K., Chen X., Gu Y., Li J., Lv X., Gao R. (2019): Expression patterns of GHRL, GHSR, LEP, LEPR, SST and CCK genes in the gastrointestinal tissues of Tibetan and Yorkshire pigs. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 64: 239-247.
download PDF

The aim was to characterize the expression patterns of several genes in the gastrointestinal tracts of Tibetan pigs (TP) and Yorkshire pigs (YP) and to explore their correlation with digestion and growth difference of the two breeds. The body weights and growth of YP and TP were studied at 6, 12 and 24 weeks of age, and their plasma levels of ghrelin (GHRL), leptin (LEP), somatostatin (SST) and cholecystokinin (CCK) were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Blood and gastrointestinal sections (stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon) were collected and assayed for mRNA expression of the six genes (GHRL, ghrelin receptor (GHSR), LEP, leptin receptor (LEPR), SST and CCK) by reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR). TP generally had higher mRNA expressions of GHSR, LEP, LEPR, SST and CCK genes compared to YP, and expressed lower levels of the GHRL gene in most tissues of the digestive tract. In both breeds, plasma levels of the expressed proteins were more closely correlated with the feed intake and growth than with mRNA levels of the target genes. Our data indicate that TP possess special gene expression patterns in the gastrointestinal tract compared to YP, which is consistent with its unique feed intake and adaptation to harsh environment.

References:
Barb C.R, Hausman G.J, Houseknecht K.L (2001): Biology of leptin in the pig. Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 21, 297-317  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0739-7240(01)00123-0
 
Cheng C., Sun W. K., Liu R., Wang R. M., Chen Y. H., Wang Y., Li J. L., Lu X. B., Gao R. (2015): Comparison of gene expression of Toll-like receptors and antimicrobial peptides in immune organs and tissues between Yorkshire and Tibetan pigs. Animal Genetics, 46, 272-279  https://doi.org/10.1111/age.12286
 
Corleto Vito Domenico (2010): Somatostatin and the gastrointestinal tract. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity, 17, 63-68  https://doi.org/10.1097/MED.0b013e32833463ed
 
Van Op den bosch Joeri, Adriaensen Dirk, Van Nassauw Luc, Timmermans Jean-Pierre (2009): The role(s) of somatostatin, structurally related peptides and somatostatin receptors in the gastrointestinal tract: a review. Regulatory Peptides, 156, 1-8  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.regpep.2009.04.003
 
Dong Xiao-Ying, Xu Jian, Tang Sheng-Qiu, Li Hai-Yun, Jiang Qing-Yan, Zou Xiao-Ting (2009): Ghrelin and its biological effects on pigs. Peptides, 30, 1203-1211  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2009.03.001
 
Fujimiya Mineko, Ataka Koji, Asakawa Akihiro, Chen Chih-Yen, Kato Ikuo, Inui Akio (2011): Ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and obestatin on the gastrointestinal motility. Peptides, 32, 2348-2351  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2011.07.020
 
Gong J.J., Lv X.B., Chen X.H., Zeng K., Yang X.M., Liang Y. (2009): Investigation on growth performance in Tibetan pig. Southwest China Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 22, 473–476.
 
Jiao W., Ma Q., Lv X., Shan A., Li Z. (2017): Gene expression and tissue distribution of β-defensins in Chinese Min pigs and Landrace pigs. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 62, 178-183  https://doi.org/10.17221/84/2015-CJAS
 
Kaiya Hiroyuki, Kangawa Kenji, Miyazato Mikiya (2013): What is the general action of ghrelin for vertebrates? – Comparisons of ghrelin’s effects across vertebrates. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 181, 187-191  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2012.10.015
 
Kitazawa Takio, Nakamura Tatsuro, Saeki Atsuki, Teraoka Hiroki, Hiraga Takeo, Kaiya Hiroyuki (2011): Molecular identification of ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) and its functional role in the gastrointestinal tract of the guinea-pig. Peptides, 32, 1876-1886  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2011.07.026
 
Krejs G. J. (2009): Physiological Role of Somatostatin in the Digestive Tract: Gastric Acid Secretion, Intestinal Absorption, and Motility. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 21, 47-53  https://doi.org/10.3109/00365528609087431
 
Li M., Wu H., Luo Z., Xia Y., Guan J., Wang T., Gu Y., Chen L., Zhang K., Ma J. (2012): An atlas of DNA methylomes in porcine adipose and muscle tissues. Nature Communications, 3, Article No. 850.
 
Little T. J., Horowitz M., Feinle-Bisset C. (2005): Role of cholecystokinin in appetite control and body weight regulation. Obesity Reviews, 6, 297-306  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2005.00212.x
 
Livak Kenneth J., Schmittgen Thomas D. (2001): Analysis of Relative Gene Expression Data Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR and the 2−ΔΔCT Method. Methods, 25, 402-408  https://doi.org/10.1006/meth.2001.1262
 
Matson Claire A., Reid Dana F., Cannon Todd A., Ritter Robert C. (2000): Cholecystokinin and leptin act synergistically to reduce body weight. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 278, R882-R890  https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.2000.278.4.R882
 
Monteiro Mariana P., Batterham Rachel L. (2017): The Importance of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Controlling Food Intake and Regulating Energy Balance. Gastroenterology, 152, 1707-1717.e2  https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2017.01.053
 
Pérez-Montarelo Dafne, Fernández Almudena, Barragán Carmen, Noguera Jose L., Folch Josep M., Rodríguez M. Carmen, Óvilo Cristina, Silió Luis, Fernández Ana I., Luque Raul M. (2013): Transcriptional Characterization of Porcine Leptin and Leptin Receptor Genes. PLoS ONE, 8, e66398-  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066398
 
Pérez-Pérez Antonio, Sánchez-Jiménez Flora, Maymó Julieta, Dueñas José L., Varone Cecilia, Sánchez-Margalet Víctor (2015): Role of leptin in female reproduction. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM), 53, -  https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2014-0387
 
Qi Sharina, Chen Jinyong, Guo Rongfu, Yu Bing, Chen Daiwen (2009): β-defensins gene expression in tissues of the crossbred and Tibetan pigs. Livestock Science, 123, 161-168  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2008.11.009
 
Shen Linyuan, Lei Huaigang, Zhang Shunhua, Li Xuewei, Li Mingzhou, Jiang Xiaobing, Zhu Kangping, Zhu Li (2014): The comparison of energy metabolism and meat quality among three pig breeds. Animal Science Journal, 85, 770-779  https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12207
 
Shintani M., Ogawa Y., Ebihara K., Aizawa-Abe M., Miyanaga F., Takaya K., Hayashi T., Inoue G., Hosoda K., Kojima M., Kangawa K., Nakao K. (2001): Ghrelin, an Endogenous Growth Hormone Secretagogue, Is a Novel Orexigenic Peptide That Antagonizes Leptin Action Through the Activation of Hypothalamic Neuropeptide Y/Y1 Receptor Pathway. Diabetes, 50, 227-232  https://doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.50.2.227
 
Steinert R. E., Feinle-Bisset C., Geary N., Beglinger C. (2013): DIGESTIVE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE PIG SYMPOSIUM: Secretion of gastrointestinal hormones and eating control1. Journal of Animal Science, 91, 1963-1973  https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2012-6022
 
Uddin Muhammad Jasim, Cinar Mehmet Ulas, Tesfaye Dawit, Looft Christian, Tholen Ernst, Schellander Karl (2011): Age-related changes in relative expression stability of commonly used housekeeping genes in selected porcine tissues. BMC Research Notes, 4, -  https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-4-441
 
Uddin Muhammad Jasim, Kaewmala Kanokwan, Tesfaye Dawit, Tholen Ernst, Looft Christian, Hoelker Michael, Schellander Karl, Cinar Mehmet Ulas (2013): Expression patterns of porcine Toll-like receptors family set of genes (TLR1-10) in gut-associated lymphoid tissues alter with age. Research in Veterinary Science, 95, 92-102  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2013.01.027
 
Vitari F., Di Giancamillo A., Domeneghini C. (2010): Leptin (the ob gene product), ob-receptor and ghrelin immunolocalizations in fasted and fed swine gastrointestinal mucosa. Livestock Science, 134, 33-36  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2010.06.089
 
Vitari Francesca, Di Giancamillo Alessia, Deponti Daniela, Carollo Valentina, Domeneghini Cinzia (2012): Distribution of ghrelin-producing cells in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs at different ages. Veterinary Research Communications, 36, 71-80  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11259-012-9517-y
 
Yadav Asha, Deo Nirmala (2013): Influence of Leptin on Immunity. Current Immunology Reviews, 9, 23-30  https://doi.org/10.2174/1573395511309010004
 
Zhang Jie, Zhou Chaowei, Ma Jideng, Chen Lei, Jiang Anan, Zhu Li, Shuai Surong, Wang Jinyong, Li Mingzhou, Li Xuewei (2013): Breed, sex and anatomical location-specific gene expression profiling of the porcine skeletal muscles. BMC Genetics, 14, 53-  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2156-14-53
 
Zieba D.A., Szczesna M., Klocek-Gorka B., Williams G.L. (2008): Leptin as a nutritional signal regulating appetite and reproductive processes in seasonally-breeding ruminants. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 59, 7–18.
 
download PDF

© 2019 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences