Short-term supplementation with dietary fructooligosaccharide and dietary mannitol elevated the absorption of calcium and magnesium in adult rats

https://doi.org/10.17221/44/2015-CJASCitation:Xiao J., Sakaguchi E., Bai G. (2016): Short-term supplementation with dietary fructooligosaccharide and dietary mannitol elevated the absorption of calcium and magnesium in adult rats. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 61: 281-289.
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The effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide (FOS) and dietary mannitol on the absorption of Ca and Mg in a short term feeding trial were studied. Adult Wistar rats were divided into three groups and fed diets containing 0, 8% FOS or 8% mannitol for seven days. Daily intake and feces were monitored for three days to determine the apparent absorption of Ca and Mg. At the last day of the feeding trial, blood sample was collected from cecal vein to assess Ca and Mg levels. The cecum and colon were removed to analyze the parameters. The results showed that both dietary FOS and dietary mannitol significantly increased the apparent absorptions of Ca and Mg. Both dietary FOS and dietary mannitol significantly increased Ca concentration in cecal vein plasma, but did not affect Mg concentration. They significantly decreased Ca concentration and significantly increased soluble Ca concentration in cecal content dry matter (DM). The Mg concentration in colonic content DM was significantly decreased by feeding dietary FOS and dietary mannitol. FOS fermentation in cecum led to low cecal pH and increases in cecal organic acids concentration. Mannitol was fermented in cecum to induce low cecal pH and cecal wall extension. In conclusion, short-term supplementation with dietary FOS and dietary mannitol improved the apparent absorption of Ca and Mg. FOS and mannitol were fermented in cecum to elevate Ca absorption from cecum and to elevate Mg absorption in colon in rats.
References:
Bar A. (1990): Factorial calculation model for the estimation of the physiological caloric value of polyols. In: Hosoya N. (ed.): Proc. Internat. Symposium on Caloric Evaluation of Carbohydrates. Japanese Association of Dietetic and Enriched Foods, Tokyo, Japan, 209–252.
 
Behar J. (1975): Effect of calcium on magnesium absorption. American Journal of Physiology, 229, 1590–1595.
 
Campbell Joy M., Bauer Laura L., Fahey, George C., Hogarth A. J. C. L., Wolf Bryan W., Hunter Diane E. (1997): Selected Fructooligosaccharide (1-Kestose, Nystose, and 1 F -β-Fructofuranosylnystose) Composition of Foods and Feeds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 45, 3076-3082  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf970087g
 
Chonan Osamu, Matsumoto Keisuke, Watanuki Masaaki (): Effect of Galactooligosaccharides on Calcium Absorption and Preventing Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 59, 236-239  https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.59.236
 
Chutkow J. G. (1966): Effect of Magnesium Deficiency on Location of the Intestinal Absorption of Magnesium in Rats. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 123, 836-840  https://doi.org/10.3181/00379727-123-31618
 
Dwivedi B.K. (1991): Sorbitol and mannitol. In: Nabors L.O., Gelardi R.C. (eds): Alternative Sweeteners. Marcel Dekker, New York, USA, 333–348.
 
Hoshi S. (1994): Nutritional and physiological effects of indigestible saccharides on digestive tract – effect of the fermented products in the large intestine on the digestive tract size and their function in rats. PhD Thesis. Japan, Sendai: Tohoku University. (in Japanese)
 
Ichikawa H., Sakata T. (1997): Effect of L-lactic acid, short-chain fatty acids, and pH in cecal infusate on morphometric and cell kinetic parameters of rat cecum. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 42, 1598–1610. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018884625737
 
Karbach U., Feldmeier H. (1991): New clinical and experimental aspects of intestinal magnesium transport. Magnesium Research, 4, 9–22.
 
Karbach Ulrich, Feldmeier Horst (1993): The cecum is the site with the highest calcium absorption in rat intestine. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 38, 1815-1824  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01296104
 
Lupton J.R., Coder D.M., Jacobs L.R. (1985): Influence of luminal pH on rat large bowel epithelial cell cycle. American Journal of Physiology, 249, 382–388.
 
Morishita Y. (1994): The effect of dietary mannitol on the caecal microflora and short-chain fatty acids in rats. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 18, 27-29  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.1994.tb00791.x
 
OHTA Atsutane, BABA Seigo, TAKIZAWA Toshio, ADACHI Takashi (1994): Effects of Fructooligosaccharides on the Absorption of Magnesium in the Magnesium-Deficient Rat Model.. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 40, 171-180  https://doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.40.171
 
Ohta A., Ohtsuki M., Baba S., Adachi T., Sakata T., Sakaguchi E. (1995): Calcium and magnesium absorption from the colon and rectum are increased in rats fed fructooligosaccharides. Journal of Nutrition, 125, 2417–2424.
 
Raschka Ladislav, Daniel Hannelore (2005): Mechanisms underlying the effects of inulin-type fructans on calcium absorption in the large intestine of rats. Bone, 37, 728-735  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2005.05.015
 
Reeves P.G., Nielsen F.H., Fahey Jr. G.C. (1993): AIN-93 purified diets for laboratory rodents: final report of the American Institution of Nutrition ad hoc writing committee on the reformulation of the AIN-76A rodent diet. The Journal of Nutrition, 123, 1939–1951.
 
SAKATA Takashi (1986): Effects of indigestible dietary bulk and short chain fatty acids on the tissue weight and epithelial cell proliferation rate of the digestive tract in rats.. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 32, 355-362  https://doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.32.355
 
Saunders D.R., Wiggins H.S. (1981): Conservation of mannitol, lactulose, and raffinose by the human colon. American Journal of Physiology, 241, 397–402.
 
Schaafsma G. (1997): Bioavailability of calcium and magnesium. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 51, 13–16.
 
Sivieri Katia, Morales Martha L. Villarreal, Saad Susana M.I., Adorno Maria A. Tallarico, Sakamoto Isabel Kimiko, Rossi Elizeu A. (2014): Prebiotic Effect of Fructooligosaccharide in the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME ® Model). Journal of Medicinal Food, 17, 894-901  https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2013.0092
 
Tahiri M., Tressol J.C., Arnaud J., Bornet F.R.J., Bouteloup-Demange C., Feillet-Coudray C. (2003): Effect of short-chain fructooligosaccharides on intestinal calcium absorption and calcium status in postmenopausal women: a stable-isotope study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 77, 449–457.
 
Tokunaga T., Nakada Y., Tashiro Y., Hirayama M., Hidaka H. (1993): Effects of fructooligosaccharides intake on the intestinal microflora and defecation in healthy volunteers. BIFIDUS – Flores, Fructus et Semina, 6, 143–150.
 
Topping D.L., Clifton P.M. (2001): Short-chain fatty acids and human colonic function: roles of resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides. Physiological Reviews, 81, 1031–1064.
 
van den Heuvel E.G., Muys T., van Dokkum W., Schaafsma G. (1999): Oligofructose stimulates calcium absorption in adolescents. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69, 544–548.
 
Weaver Connie M., Martin Berdine R., Nakatsu Cindy H., Armstrong Arthur P., Clavijo Andrea, McCabe Linda D., McCabe George P., Duignan Sinead, Schoterman Margriet H. C., van den Heuvel Ellen G. H. M. (2011): Galactooligosaccharides Improve Mineral Absorption and Bone Properties in Growing Rats through Gut Fermentation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, 6501-6510  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf2009777
 
Weisstaub Adriana R., Abdala Victoria, Gonzales Chaves Macarena, Mandalunis Patricia, Zuleta Ángela, Zeni Susana (2013): Polydextrose Enhances Calcium Absorption and Bone Retention in Ovariectomized Rats. International Journal of Food Science, 2013, 1-8  https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/450794
 
Wisselink H.W, Weusthuis R.A, Eggink G, Hugenholtz J, Grobben G.J (2002): Mannitol production by lactic acid bacteria: a review. International Dairy Journal, 12, 151-161  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-6946(01)00153-4
 
Xiao Jin, Li Xiao, Min Xiao, Sakaguchi Ei (2013): Mannitol improves absorption and retention of calcium and magnesium in growing rats. Nutrition, 29, 325-331  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2012.06.010
 
Younes Hassan, Demigné Christian, Rémésy Christian (1996): Acidic fermentation in the caecum increases absorption of calcium and magnesium in the large intestine of the rat. British Journal of Nutrition, 75, 301-314  https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19960132
 
Bar A. (1990): Factorial calculation model for the estimation of the physiological caloric value of polyols. In: Hosoya N. (ed.): Proc. Internat. Symposium on Caloric Evaluation of Carbohydrates. Japanese Association of Dietetic and Enriched Foods, Tokyo, Japan, 209–252.
 
Behar J. (1975): Effect of calcium on magnesium absorption. American Journal of Physiology, 229, 1590–1595.
 
Campbell Joy M., Bauer Laura L., Fahey, George C., Hogarth A. J. C. L., Wolf Bryan W., Hunter Diane E. (1997): Selected Fructooligosaccharide (1-Kestose, Nystose, and 1 F -β-Fructofuranosylnystose) Composition of Foods and Feeds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 45, 3076-3082  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf970087g
 
Chonan Osamu, Matsumoto Keisuke, Watanuki Masaaki (): Effect of Galactooligosaccharides on Calcium Absorption and Preventing Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 59, 236-239  https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.59.236
 
Chutkow J. G. (1966): Effect of Magnesium Deficiency on Location of the Intestinal Absorption of Magnesium in Rats. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 123, 836-840  https://doi.org/10.3181/00379727-123-31618
 
Dwivedi B.K. (1991): Sorbitol and mannitol. In: Nabors L.O., Gelardi R.C. (eds): Alternative Sweeteners. Marcel Dekker, New York, USA, 333–348.
 
Hoshi S. (1994): Nutritional and physiological effects of indigestible saccharides on digestive tract – effect of the fermented products in the large intestine on the digestive tract size and their function in rats. PhD Thesis. Japan, Sendai: Tohoku University. (in Japanese)
 
Ichikawa H., Sakata T. (1997): Effect of L-lactic acid, short-chain fatty acids, and pH in cecal infusate on morphometric and cell kinetic parameters of rat cecum. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 42, 1598–1610. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018884625737
 
Karbach U., Feldmeier H. (1991): New clinical and experimental aspects of intestinal magnesium transport. Magnesium Research, 4, 9–22.
 
Karbach Ulrich, Feldmeier Horst (1993): The cecum is the site with the highest calcium absorption in rat intestine. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 38, 1815-1824  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01296104
 
Lupton J.R., Coder D.M., Jacobs L.R. (1985): Influence of luminal pH on rat large bowel epithelial cell cycle. American Journal of Physiology, 249, 382–388.
 
Morishita Y. (1994): The effect of dietary mannitol on the caecal microflora and short-chain fatty acids in rats. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 18, 27-29  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.1994.tb00791.x
 
OHTA Atsutane, BABA Seigo, TAKIZAWA Toshio, ADACHI Takashi (1994): Effects of Fructooligosaccharides on the Absorption of Magnesium in the Magnesium-Deficient Rat Model.. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 40, 171-180  https://doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.40.171
 
Ohta A., Ohtsuki M., Baba S., Adachi T., Sakata T., Sakaguchi E. (1995): Calcium and magnesium absorption from the colon and rectum are increased in rats fed fructooligosaccharides. Journal of Nutrition, 125, 2417–2424.
 
Raschka Ladislav, Daniel Hannelore (2005): Mechanisms underlying the effects of inulin-type fructans on calcium absorption in the large intestine of rats. Bone, 37, 728-735  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2005.05.015
 
Reeves P.G., Nielsen F.H., Fahey Jr. G.C. (1993): AIN-93 purified diets for laboratory rodents: final report of the American Institution of Nutrition ad hoc writing committee on the reformulation of the AIN-76A rodent diet. The Journal of Nutrition, 123, 1939–1951.
 
SAKATA Takashi (1986): Effects of indigestible dietary bulk and short chain fatty acids on the tissue weight and epithelial cell proliferation rate of the digestive tract in rats.. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, 32, 355-362  https://doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.32.355
 
Saunders D.R., Wiggins H.S. (1981): Conservation of mannitol, lactulose, and raffinose by the human colon. American Journal of Physiology, 241, 397–402.
 
Schaafsma G. (1997): Bioavailability of calcium and magnesium. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 51, 13–16.
 
Sivieri Katia, Morales Martha L. Villarreal, Saad Susana M.I., Adorno Maria A. Tallarico, Sakamoto Isabel Kimiko, Rossi Elizeu A. (2014): Prebiotic Effect of Fructooligosaccharide in the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME ® Model). Journal of Medicinal Food, 17, 894-901  https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2013.0092
 
Tahiri M., Tressol J.C., Arnaud J., Bornet F.R.J., Bouteloup-Demange C., Feillet-Coudray C. (2003): Effect of short-chain fructooligosaccharides on intestinal calcium absorption and calcium status in postmenopausal women: a stable-isotope study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 77, 449–457.
 
Tokunaga T., Nakada Y., Tashiro Y., Hirayama M., Hidaka H. (1993): Effects of fructooligosaccharides intake on the intestinal microflora and defecation in healthy volunteers. BIFIDUS – Flores, Fructus et Semina, 6, 143–150.
 
Topping D.L., Clifton P.M. (2001): Short-chain fatty acids and human colonic function: roles of resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides. Physiological Reviews, 81, 1031–1064.
 
van den Heuvel E.G., Muys T., van Dokkum W., Schaafsma G. (1999): Oligofructose stimulates calcium absorption in adolescents. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69, 544–548.
 
Weaver Connie M., Martin Berdine R., Nakatsu Cindy H., Armstrong Arthur P., Clavijo Andrea, McCabe Linda D., McCabe George P., Duignan Sinead, Schoterman Margriet H. C., van den Heuvel Ellen G. H. M. (2011): Galactooligosaccharides Improve Mineral Absorption and Bone Properties in Growing Rats through Gut Fermentation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, 6501-6510  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf2009777
 
Weisstaub Adriana R., Abdala Victoria, Gonzales Chaves Macarena, Mandalunis Patricia, Zuleta Ángela, Zeni Susana (2013): Polydextrose Enhances Calcium Absorption and Bone Retention in Ovariectomized Rats. International Journal of Food Science, 2013, 1-8  https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/450794
 
Wisselink H.W, Weusthuis R.A, Eggink G, Hugenholtz J, Grobben G.J (2002): Mannitol production by lactic acid bacteria: a review. International Dairy Journal, 12, 151-161  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-6946(01)00153-4
 
Xiao Jin, Li Xiao, Min Xiao, Sakaguchi Ei (2013): Mannitol improves absorption and retention of calcium and magnesium in growing rats. Nutrition, 29, 325-331  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2012.06.010
 
Younes Hassan, Demigné Christian, Rémésy Christian (1996): Acidic fermentation in the caecum increases absorption of calcium and magnesium in the large intestine of the rat. British Journal of Nutrition, 75, 301-314  https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19960132
 
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