Eggshell structure, measurements, and quality-affecting factors in laying hens: a review

https://doi.org/10.17221/46/2015-CJASCitation:Ketta M., Tůmová E. (2016): Eggshell structure, measurements, and quality-affecting factors in laying hens: a review. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 61: 299-309.
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Eggshell quality is one of the most significant factors affecting poultry industry; it economically influences egg production and hatchability. Eggshell consists of shell membranes and the true shell that includes mammillary layer, palisade layer, and cuticle. Measurements of eggshell quality include eggshell weight, shell percentage, breaking strength, thickness, and density. Mainly eggshell thickness and strength are affected by the time of egg components passage through the shell gland (uterus), eggshell ultra-structure (deposition of major units), and micro-structure (crystals size and orientation). Shell quality is affected by several internal and external factors. Major factors determining the quality or structure of eggshell are oviposition time, age, genotype, and housing system. Eggshell quality can be improved through optimization of genotype, housing system, and mineral nutrition.
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