Egg yolk colour and retinol concentration of eggs from laying hens fed diets containing carrot and beetroot meal L.A.Z., Lima H.J.D., Martins R.A., Assunção A.S.A., Junior D.A.N., Silva W.F., Silva F.G. (2019): Egg yolk colour and retinol concentration of eggs from laying hens fed diets containing carrot and beetroot meal. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 64: 395-403.
download PDF

Compounds such as pigments, antioxidants, and pro-vitamins A are found in carrots and beetroots and could increase the nutritional value of eggs when added to diets for laying hens. This research evaluated retinol concentrations and egg yolk colour with addition of freeze-dried carrot (Daucus carota L.) and beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) meal in the diets of 240 Hisex Brown laying hens. The hens were distributed in a completely randomized design in five groups according to five experimental diets: (1) maize and soybean meal; (2) sorghum and soybean meal; (3) sorghum and soybean meal plus 0.8% of freeze-dried carrot meal; (4) sorghum and soybean meal plus 0.8% of freeze-dried beetroot meal; (5) sorghum and soybean meal plus 0.4% of freeze-dried carrot meal and 0.4% freeze-dried beetroot meal. The diet containing maize and soybean meal resulted in a more intense egg yolk colour and higher retinol levels in comparison to other diets (P < 0.05). However, carrot meal increased egg yolk colour and beetroot meal increased egg yolk retinol concentration in comparison to sorghum and soybean meal diets (P < 0.05). The inclusion of 0.8% of the carrot and beetroot meal in the diet is not enough to reach the intensity of yolk colour and yolk retinol concentration obtained through the diet containing maize, however, it increases retinol level and yolk colour in comparison to the diet containing sorghum without carrot and beetroot meal.

Abd El-Hack M.E., Alagawany M., Mahrose K.M., Arif M., Saeed M., Arain M.A., Soomro R.N., Siyal F.A., Fazlani S.A., Fowler J. (2019): Productive performance, egg quality, hematological parameters and serum chemistry of laying hens fed diets supplemented with certain fat-soluble vitamins individually or combined during summer season. Animal Nutrition, 5, 49–55.
Attia G.Y., Moussa M.E.M., Sheashea E.R. (2013): Characterization of red pigments extracted from red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and its potential uses as antioxidant and natural food colorants. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 91, 1095–1110.
Carvalho F.B., Stringhini J., Jardim Filho R.M., Leandro N.S.M., Cafe M.B., Deus H.A.S.B. (2007): Internal and eggshell quality for eggs collected from laying hens of different genetic lines and ages. Ciência Animal Brasileira, 8, 25–29. (in Portuguese)
Chandran J., Nisha P., Singhal R.S., Pandit A.B. (2014): Degradation of colour in beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.): A kinetics study. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51, 2678–2684.
Englmaierova M., Skrivan M., Bubancova I. (2013): A comparison of lutein, spray-dried Chlorella, and synthetic carotenoids effects on yolk colour, oxidative stability, and reproductive performance of laying hens. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 58, 412–419.
Farghly M.F.A., Mahrose K.M., Galal A.E., Ali R.M., Ahmad E.A.M., Rehman Z.U., Ullah Z., Ding C. (2018): Implementation of different feed withdrawal times and water temperatures in managing turkeys during heat stress. Poultry Science, 97, 3076–3084.
Freitas E.R., Raquel D.L., Nascimento A.J.N., Watanabe P.H., Lopes I.R.V. (2014): Complete replacement of corn by white or red sorghum in Japanese quail feeds. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola, 16, 333–336.
Fuente-Martinez B., Mendoza-Martinez G.D., Arce-Menocal J., Lopez-Coello C., Avila-Gonzalez E. (2012): Performance of laying hens on diets with different levels of protein. Archivos de Medicina Veterinária, 44, 67–74. (in Spanish)
Garcia E.A., Molino A.B., Berto D.A., Pelicia K., Osera R.H., Faitarone A.B.G. (2009): Performance and quality of eggs of commercial laying hens fed with annatto seed (Bixa orellana L.) ground in the diet. Veterinária e Zootecnia, 16, 689–697. (in Portuguese)
Garcia E.A., Molino A.B., Goncalves H.C., Junqueira O.M, Pelicia K., Osera R.H., Duarte K.F. (2010): Ground annatto seeds (Bixa orellana L.) in sorghum-based commercial layer diets and their effects on performance, egg quality, and yolk pigmentation. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola, 12, 259–264.
Grashorn M. (2016): Feed additives for influencing chicken meat and egg yolk color. In: Carle R., Schweiggert R.M. (eds): Handbook on Natural Pigments in Food and Beverages – Industrial Applications for Improving Food Color. Woodhead Publishing, Sawston, UK, 283–302.
Guldiken B., Toydemir G., Nur Memis K., Okur S., Boyacioglu D., Capanoglu E. (2016): Home-processed red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) products: changes in antioxidant properties and bioaccessibility. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 17, 858–871.
Hammershoj M., Kidmose U., Steenfeldt S. (2010): Deposition of carotenoids in egg yolk by short-term supplement of coloured carrot (Daucus carota) varieties as forage material for egg-laying hens. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90, 1163–1171.
Ilhan M., Bulbul T. (2016): Effect of retinol and retinol esters on performance, egg quality, and blood and egg vitamin A levels in laying quails. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 40, 590–597.
Ketta M., Tumova E. (2016): Eggshell structure, measurements, and quality-affecting factors in laying hens: A review. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 61, 299–309.
Kopriva V., Suchy P., Strakova E., Zdarsky M., Dvorak P. (2014): Colour and viscosity of egg yolk after addition of beetroot to feed for laying hens. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 83, 39–44.
Kufel L.G.S., Romania H.F., Vieira J.M., Del Valle T.A., Takiya C.S., Dias L.T.S., Silva J.D.T. (2019): Performance and egg quality of Japanese quails fed ground sorghum diets and increasing levels of Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia paniculata). Livestock Science, 227, 17–21.
Leja M., Kaminska I., Kramer M., Maksylewicz-Kaul A., Kammerer D., Carle R., Baranski R. (2013): The content of phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity varies with carrot origin and root color. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 68, 163–170.
Manz U., Philipp K. (1988): Determination of vitamin A in complete feeds and premixes and vitamin concentrates with HPLC. In: Keller H.E. (ed.): Analytical methods for vitamins and carotenoids in food. Hoffmann-LaRoche, Basel, Switzerland, 124–136.
Melo C.M.T., Faria J.V. (2014): Composition, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in conventional not edible parts of six vegetables. Bioscience Journal, 30, 93–100.
Melo P.S., Bergamaschi K.B., Tiveron A.P., Massarioli A.P., Oldoni T.L.C., Zanus M.C., Pereira G.E., Alencar S.M. (2011): Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of agroindustrial residues. Ciência Rural, 41, 1088–1093. (in Portuguese)
Nimalaratne C., Wu J. (2015): Hen egg as an antioxidant food commodity: A review. Nutrients, 7, 8274–8293.
Rojas V.V., Callacna C.M., Arnaiz P.V. (2015): Use of an additive canthaxanthin based and annatto extract in diets of laying hens and its effect on the color of the yolk and the egg shelf life. Scientia Agropecuaria, 6, 191–199.
Rostagno H.S., Albino L.F.T., Donzele J.L., Gomes P.C., Oliveira R.F., Lopes D.C., Ferreira A.S., Barreto S.L.T., Euclides R.F. (2011): Brazilian tables for poultry and swine – food composition and nutritional requirements. Editora UFV, Viçosa, Brazil. (in Portuguese)
Sandeski L.M., Ponsano E.H., Neto M.G. (2014): Optimizing xanthophyll concentrations in diets to obtain well-pigmented yolks. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 23, 409–417.
Sharma K.D., Karki S., Thakur N.S., Attri S. (2012): Chemical composition, functional properties and processing of carrot: A review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 49, 22–32.
Titcomb T.J., Kaeppler M.S., Cook M.E., Simon P.W., Tanumihardjo S.A. (2019): Carrot leaves improve color and xanthophyll content of egg yolk in laying hens but are not as effective as commercially available marigold fortificant. Poultry Science, pez257, doi: 10.3382/ps/pez257.
UNICAMP (2011): Brazilian Food Composition Table – TACO. State University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. (in Portuguese)
Yuan J., Roshdy A.R., Guo Y., Wang Y., Guo S. (2014): Effect of dietary vitamin a on reproductive performance and immune response of broiler breeders. PLoS ONE, 9, 1–9.
Zhang Y.N., Wang J., Zhang H.J., Wu S.G., Qi G.H. (2017): Effect of dietary supplementation of organic or inorganic manganese on eggshell quality, ultrastructure, and components in laying hens. Poultry Science, 96, 2184–2193.
download PDF

© 2019 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences