Effects of γ-aminobutyric acid on the thymus tissue structure, antioxidant activity, cell apoptosis, and cytokine levels in chicks under heat stress
C. Liang, X.Z. Xie, Y.W. Zhou, Y.Y. Jiang, L.J. Xie, Z. Chenhttps://doi.org/10.17221/67/2015-CJASCitation:Liang C., Xie X.Z., Zhou Y.W., Jiang Y.Y., Xie L.J., Chen Z. (2016): Effects of γ-aminobutyric acid on the thymus tissue structure, antioxidant activity, cell apoptosis, and cytokine levels in chicks under heat stress. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 61: 539-550.
This study aims to investigate the effect of dietary γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the development of thymus tissue structure and function in chicks under heat stress. One-day-old male Wenchang chicks were randomly divided into control group (CK), heat stress group (HS), and GABA+HS group. The chicks from GABA+HS group were administered 0.2 ml of GABA solution daily by oral gavage (50 mg/kg of body weight). Chicks from HS and GABA+HS groups were subjected to heat stress treatment at 40 ± 0.5°C for 2 h every day. Blood and thymus tissue were collected from the chicks at the end of weeks 1–6. Results showed that the thymus weight and index, thickness of cortex, cortex/medulla ratio, number of lymphocytes, activity of superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, and glutathione peroxidase, and plasma level of tumor necrosis factor-α in HS group were significantly lower than in CK group (P < 0.05). The Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) expression in the late stage of heat stress, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, thymocyte apoptosis rate, number of lymphocytes in the S and G2/M phases, and plasma levels of interleukin-4 and interferon-γ in HS group were significantly higher than in CK group (P < 0.05). In contrast, the integrity of thymus tissue structure of GABA+HS group was improved compared with HS group. The TLR2 expression in the early stage of heat stress and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in GABA+HS group were significantly higher than in HS group (P < 0.05), and the MDA content, thymocyte apoptosis rate, number of lymphocytes in the S and G2/M phases, and plasma level of IL-4 and IFN-γ in GABA+HS group were significantly lower than in HS group (P < 0.05). We concluded that heat stress caused structure damage to thymus tissue of chicks, changed the plasma levels of cytokines, reduced the antioxidant activity, and increased cell apoptosis in chick thymus. GABA alleviated the negative effects on the development of chick thymus, improved the immune function of thymus, and played a protective role by regulating the plasma levels of cytokines and antioxidant activity of thymus tissue.Keywords:
heat shock; GABA; chick thymus; immune function; developmentReferences:
Baccan Gyselle C., Oliveira Renê D.R., Mantovani Bernardo (2004): Stress and immunological phagocytosis: possible nongenomic action of corticosterone. Life Sciences, 75, 1357-1368 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2004.02.026Barciszewski Jan, Siboska Gunhild E., Pedersen Bent O., Clark Brian F.C., Rattan Suresh I.S. (1997): Furfural, a Precursor of the Cytokinin Hormone Kinetin, and Base Propenals Are Formed by Hydroxyl Radical Damage of DNA. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 238, 317-319 https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1997.7315Borges S. A., Fischer da Silva A. V., Majorka A., Hooge D. M., Cummings K. R. (2004): Physiological responses of broiler chickens to heat stress and dietary electrolyte balance (sodium plus potassium minus chloride, milliequivalents per kilogram). Poultry Science, 83, 1551-1558 https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/83.9.1551Chand Naila, Naz Shabana, Khan Ajab, Khan Sarzamin, Khan Rifat Ullah (): Performance traits and immune response of broiler chicks treated with zinc and ascorbic acid supplementation during cyclic heat stress. International Journal of Biometeorology, , - https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-014-0815-7Tao Chen , Hengmin Cui , Yun Cui , Caimin Bai , Tao Gong , Xi Peng (): Cell-cycle blockage associated with increased apoptotic cells in the thymus of chickens fed on diets high in fluorine. Human & Experimental Toxicology, 30, 685-692 https://doi.org/10.1177/0960327110379022Chen Z., Wang T., Huang L.M., Fang D.N. (2002): Effects of GABA on the heat stress broilers. Zoological Research, 23, 341–344.Chen Z., Tang J., Sun Y.Q., Xie J. (2013): Protective effect of γ-aminobutyric acid on antioxidation function in intestinal mucosa of Wenchang chicken induced by heat stress. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 23, 1634–1641.Chen Z., Xie J., Wang B., Tang J. (): Effect of -aminobutyric acid on digestive enzymes, absorption function, and immune function of intestinal mucosa in heat-stressed chicken. Poultry Science, , - https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2013-03398Chen Z., Xie J., Hu M.Y., Tang J., Shao Z.F., Li M.H. (2015): Protective effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the small intestinal mucosa in heat-stressed Wenchang chicken. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 25, 78–87.Cottalorda Anne, Mercier Blandine C., Mbitikon-Kobo Florentin M., Arpin Christophe, Teoh Denise Y. L., McMichael Andrew, Marvel Jacqueline, Bonnefoy-Bérard Nathalie (2009): TLR2 engagement on memory CD8 + T cells improves their cytokine-mediated proliferation and IFN-γ secretion in the absence of Ag. European Journal of Immunology, 39, 2673-2681 https://doi.org/10.1002/eji.200939627Curley Allison A., Eggan Stephen M., Lazarus Matt S., Huang Z. Josh, Volk David W., Lewis David A. (2013): Role of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 in regulating cortical parvalbumin and GABA membrane transporter 1 expression: Implications for schizophrenia. Neurobiology of Disease, 50, 179-186 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2012.10.018Deng W., Dong X. F., Tong J. M., Zhang Q. (): The probiotic Bacillus licheniformis ameliorates heat stress-induced impairment of egg production, gut morphology, and intestinal mucosal immunity in laying hens. Poultry Science, 91, 575-582 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2010-01293Ghazi Sh., Habibian M., Moeini M. M., Abdolmohammadi A. R. (2012): Effects of Different Levels of Organic and Inorganic Chromium on Growth Performance and Immunocompetence of Broilers under Heat Stress. Biological Trace Element Research, 146, 309-317 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-011-9260-1Gu Z.T., Wang H., Li L., Liu Y.S., Deng X.B., Huo S.F., Yuan F.F., Tong H.S., Su L. (2014): Heat stress induces apoptosis through transcription-independent p53-mediated mitochondrial pathways in human umbilical vein endothelial cell. Scientific Reports, 4, 4469.Han A. Y., Zhang M. H., Zuo X. L., Zheng S. S., Zhao C. F., Feng J. H., Cheng C. (): Effect of acute heat stress on calcium concentration, proliferation, cell cycle, and interleukin-2 production in splenic lymphocytes from broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 89, 2063-2070 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2010-00715Kawai Taro, Akira Shizuo (2007): Signaling to NF-κB by Toll-like receptors. Trends in Molecular Medicine, 13, 460-469 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molmed.2007.09.002Kühl N. M., Rensing* L. (2000): Heat shock effects on cell cycle progression. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 57, 450-463 https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00000707Matsushita K., Miyake H., Chiba K., Fujisawa M. (2015): Clusterin produced by sertoli cells inhibits heat stress-induced apoptosis in the rat testis. Andrologia, 191, e743.Mosmann T R, Coffman R L (1989): TH1 and TH2 Cells: Different Patterns of Lymphokine Secretion Lead to Different Functional Properties. Annual Review of Immunology, 7, 145-173 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.iy.07.040189.001045Netea M. G., Van der Meer J. W. M., Sutmuller R. P., Adema G. J., Kullberg B.-J. (): From the Th1/Th2 Paradigm towards a Toll-Like Receptor/T-Helper Bias. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 49, 3991-3996 https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.49.10.3991-3996.2005Okun Eitan, Griffioen Kathleen J., Rothman Sarah, Wan Ruiqian, Cong Wei-Na, De Cabo Rafael, Martin-Montalvo Alejandro, Levette Andrew, Maudsley Stuart, Martin Bronwen, Arumugam Thiruma Valavan, Mattson Mark P. (2014): Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 modulate autonomic control of heart rate and energy metabolism. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 36, 90-100 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2013.10.013Quinteiro-Filho W. M., Ribeiro A., Ferraz-de-Paula V., Pinheiro M. L., Sakai M., Sa L. R. M., Ferreira A. J. P., Palermo-Neto J. (): Heat stress impairs performance parameters, induces intestinal injury, and decreases macrophage activity in broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 89, 1905-1914 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2010-00812Rivest S. (2010): Interactions between the immune and neuroendocrine systems. Progress in Brain Research, 181, 43–53.Tang J., Chen Z. (2015): The protective effect of γ-aminobutyric acid on the development of immune function in chickens under heat stress. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, , n/a-n/a https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12385Klein Wolterink Roel G. J., Hendriks Rudi W. (2013): Type 2 Innate Lymphocytes in Allergic Airway Inflammation. Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, 13, 271-280 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11882-013-0346-zWong G., Goeddel D. (1988): Induction of manganous superoxide dismutase by tumor necrosis factor: possible protective mechanism. Science, 242, 941-944 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.3263703Xia L., Zhan X.A., Zhu Q.M., Wang Y.X., Liu W.L., Ma Y.E. (2012): γ-Aminobutyric acid affects laying and reproductive performance of broiler breeders under heat stress. Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 24, 137–144. (in Chinese)Xiang-hong Ju, Yan-hong Yong, Han-jin Xu, Li-long An, Yingmei Xu (2011): Impacts of heat stress on baseline immune measures and a subset of T cells in Bama miniature pigs. Livestock Science, 135, 289-292 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2010.07.009Zhang S.X., Huang H.R., Bao E.D. (2003): The effect and regulation of heat stress to apoptosis on chicken thymocytes. Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University, 26, 66–69.