The influence of milking on the teat canal of dairy cows determined by ultrasonographic measurementsák P., Strapáková E., Rušinová M., Szencziová I. (2017): The influence of milking on the teat canal of dairy cows determined by ultrasonographic measurements. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 62: 75-81.
download PDF
The effect of milking on the length and diameter of the teat canal during teat regeneration immediately after milking was evaluated. The practical measurements of the teat canal were performed on 70 Holstein cows using ultrasound Aloka Prosound device 2. A special “bath method” of the teat ultrasonographic scanning was used at set time intervals – before milking, immediately after milking, and 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after milking. Before milking, the average length of the teat canal was 10.67 mm and 9.3 mm and the teat canal diameter was 1.11 mm and 1.09 mm for front and rear teats, respectively. The average length of the front and rear teat canal significantly increased by about 20.5 and 32.9% and the front and rear teat canal diameter increased by 9.0 and 9.1% on average immediately after milking compared to values detected before milking. After 120 min of regeneration the teat canal was by 3.56 and 14.95% longer than before milking for front and rear teats, respectively. Prolongation of the teat canal was significantly affected by teat position. Based on the present results, the time period of 120 min is not sufficient for the complete regeneration of the teat canal length to the pre-milking values. On the other hand, we recorded total regeneration of the teat diameter within 120 min after milking. The initial values of the front and rear teat diameter were equal to those measurd 120 min after milking.
Ayadi Moez, Caja Gerardo, Such Xavier, Knight Christopher H (): Use of ultrasonography to estimate cistern size and milk storage at different milking intervals in the udder of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Research, 70, 1-7
Braun U. (1997): Atlas and Textbook of Ultrasonographic Diagnostic in Cattle. Parey Buchverlag, Berlin, Germany.
Celik H.A., Aydin I., Colak M., Sendag S., Dinc D.A. (2008): Ultrasonographic evaluation of age related influence on the teat canal and the effect of this influence on milk yield in Brown Swiss cows. Bulletin of the Institute in Pulawy, 52, 245–249.
Fasulkov I.R. (2012): Ultrasonography of the mammary gland in ruminants: a review. Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 15, 1–12.
Fasulkov Ivan, Vasilev Nasko, Karadaev Manol, Dineva Galina (): Visualization and measurement of teat structures in Black-and-White cows through ultrasonography. Macedonian Veterinary Review, , -
Franz S., Hofmann-Parisot M., Baumgartner W., Windischbauer G., Suchy A., Bauder B. (2001): Ultrasonography of the bovine teat canal in cows and sheeps. Veterinary Research, 149, 109–112.
Geidel S., Graff K. (2001): The morphology of the teat and the milking technical parameters. 1st Annual General Meeting of Scientific Society of Milk Producers Consultants, Berlin, Germany, 1–10. (in German)
Geishauser T., Querengässer K. (2000): Investigations on Teat Canal Length in Teats with Milk Flow Disturbances. Journal of Dairy Science, 83, 1976-1980
Gleeson David E., O’Callaghan Edmond J., Meaney William J., Rath Myles V. (2005): Effect of two milking systems on the milking characteristics, teat tissue changes and new infection rate of dairy cows. Animal Research, 54, 259-267
Grindal Robert J., Hillerton J. Eric (1991): Influence of milk flow rate on new intramammary infection in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Research, 58, 263-
Hamann J., Osteras O., Mayntz M., Woyke W. (1994): Functional parameters of milking units with regard to teat tissue treatment. Bulletin of the International Dairy Federeration, 297, 23–34.
Hospes R., Seeh C. (1999): Sonography and Endoscopy of the Bovine Teat. Verlag Schattaur, Stuttgart, Germany.
Huth B. (2004): Selection possibilities for improvement of machine milking in Hungarian Simmental breed. Ph.D. Diss. Kaposvár, Hungary: University of Kaposvár. (in Hungarian)
Klein Daniela, Flöck Martina, Lorenz Khol Johannes, Franz Sonja, Peter Stüger Hans, Baumgartner Walter (2005): Ultrasonographic measurement of the bovine teat: breed differences, and the significance of the measurements for udder health. Journal of Dairy Research, 72, 296-302
McDonald J.S. (1975): Radiographic method for anatomic study of the teat canal: changes between milking periods. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 36, 1241–1242.
Neijenhuis F., Klungel G.H., Hogeveen H. (2001): Recovery of Cow Teats after Milking as Determined by Ultrasonographic Scanning. Journal of Dairy Science, 84, 2599-2606
Paulrud C.O. (2005): Basic Concepts of the Bovine Teat Canal. Veterinary Research Communications, 29, 215-245
Paulrud C.O., Clause S., Andersen P.E., Rasmusen M.D. (2005): Infrared thermography and ultrasonography to indirectly monitor the influence of liner type and overmilking on teat tissue recovery. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 46, 137–147.
Rathore A.K. (1977): Teat Shape and Production Associated with Opening and Prolapse of the Teat Orifice in Friesian Cows. British Veterinary Journal, 133, 258-262
Seyfried G. (1992): The sonographic measurment of teat structures and the significance for udder health of Braun and Fleckvieh cows. Ph.D. Diss. Vienna, Austria: University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna. (in German)
Scherzer J. (1992): Ultrasound examination of the bovine teat – influence of teat canal length and other factors on the udder health. Ph.D. Diss. Vienna, Austria: University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna. (in German)
Stadnik L., Louda F., Bezdicek J., Jezkova A., Rakos M. (2010): Changes in teat parameters caused by milking and their recovery to their initial size. Archiv Tierzücht, 53, 650–662.
Stojnovic M., Alagic D. (2012): Machine milking and daily changes of cow’s teat condition. Animal Science Days, 3, 303–307.
Strapak P., Tancin V., Vavrisinova K., Grafenau P., Bulla J., Chrenek P., Simko M., Juracek M., Polak P., Ryba S., Juhas P., Huba J., Krupova Z. (2013): Cattle Breeding. Slovak University of Agriculture, Nitra, Slovak Republic. (in Slovak)
Szencziová Iveta, Strapák Peter, Stádník Ludĕk, Ducháček Jaromír, Beran Jan (2013): Relationship of Udder and Teat Morphology to Milking Characteristics and Udder Health Determined by Ultrasonographic Examinations in Dairy Cows / Związek Między Morfologią Wymienia I Strzyków A Cechami Doju I Zdrowotnością Wymienia W Badaniach Usg Krów Mlecznych. Annals of Animal Science, 13, -
Tancin V., Tancinova D. (2008): Milking Machine and Milk Value. Slovak University of Agriculture, Nitra, Slovak Republic. (in Slovak)
Tilki M., Colak M., Inal S., Caglayan T. (2005): Effects of teat shape on milk yield and milking traits in Brown Swiss cows. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 29, 275–278.
download PDF

© 2022 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti