The effect of long-term exposure to tributyltin (TBT) on energy metabolism and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzymatic system in freshwater teleost was investigated. The impact on the parameters of energy metabolism (the content of glucose (Glu) and lactate (LA), and the activities of hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)) in the muscle tissue, as well as on the ATP enzymatic system (ATP content, Total-ATPase, Na+-K+-ATPase, and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase) in the gill tissue of common carp was evaluated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (75, 0.75, and 7.5 µg/l) for 60 days. Based on the results, long-term exposure to TBT could lead to obvious ATP enzymatic system responses, including the decreased ATP content and Na+-K+-ATPase activity, and the increased activities of Total-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase. Moreover, the parameters of energy metabolism in muscle were also regulated, such as induced indices of the levels of Glu and LA, and the activities of HK and PK, and inhibited indices of LDH activity. Shortly, the measured physiological responses in fish could provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms of TBT-induced bio-toxicity, and could be used as potential biomarkers for monitoring the TBT pollution in the field.
Augenfeld John M. (1969): The role of Na+ −K+ -activated, ouabain-sensitive ATPase in the response of L. to salinity changes. Life Sciences, 8, 973-978 https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3205(69)90203-3
Bradford Marion M. (1976): A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72, 248-254 https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3
Brain R.A., Cedergreen N. (2009): Biomarkers in aquatic plants: selection and utility. Reviews of Environment Contamination and Toxicology, 198, 49–109.
Carageorgiou Haris, Tzotzes Vassilios, Pantos Constantinos, Mourouzis Constantinos, Zarros Apostolos, Tsakiris Stylianos (2004): In vivo
and in vitro
Effects of Cadmium on Adult Rat Brain Total Antioxidant Status, Acetylcholinesterase, (Na +
)-ATPase and Mg 2+
-ATPase Activities: Protection by L-Cysteine. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, 94, 112-118 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-7843.2004.pto940303.x
Carvalho Cleoni dos Santos, Fernandes Marisa Narciso (2008): Effect of copper on liver key enzymes of anaerobic glucose metabolism from freshwater tropical fish Prochilodus lineatus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 151, 437-442 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2007.04.016
Cotou E., Castritsi-Catharios I., Moraitou-Apostolopoulou M. (2001): Surfactant-based oil dispersant toxicity to developing nauplii of Artemia: effects on ATPase enzymatic system. Chemosphere, 42, 959-964 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(00)00108-9
Isaia J., Masoni A. (1976): The effects of calcium and magnesium on water and ionic permeabilities in the sea water adapted eel,Anguilla anguilla L.. Journal of Comparative Physiology ? B, 109, 221-233 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00689420
Li Zhi-Hua, Zlabek Vladimir, Velisek Josef, Grabic Roman, Machova Jana, Randak Tomas (2009): Responses of antioxidant status and Na+–K+-ATPase activity in gill of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, chronically treated with carbamazepine. Chemosphere, 77, 1476-1481 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.10.031
Li Z.H., Li P., Randak T. (2011a): Evaluating the toxicity of environmental concentrations of waterborne chromium (VI) to a model teleost, Oncorhynchus mykiss: a comparative study of in vivo and in vitro. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology and Pharmacology, 153, 402–407.
Li Z.H., Velisek J., Grabic R., Li P., Kolarova J., Randak T. (2011b): Use of hematological and plasma biochemical parameters to assess the chronic effects of a fungicide propiconazole on a freshwater teleost. Chemosphere, 83, 572–578.
Li Z.H., Zlabek V., Grabic R., Li P., Randak T. (2011c): Biochemical responses in gills of rainbow trout exposed to propiconazole. Central European Journal of Biology, 6, 84–90.
Li Z.H., Li P., Shi Z.C. (2015): Chronic exposure to tributyltin induces brain functional damage in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). PLoS ONE, 10, e0123091.
Pacheco M (2001): Biotransformation, Endocrine, and Genetic Responses of Anguilla anguilla L. to Petroleum Distillate Products and Environmentally Contaminated Waters. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 49, 64-75 https://doi.org/10.1006/eesa.2000.2025
Polakof S., Ceinos R.M., Fernandez-Duran B., Miguez J.M., Soengas J.L. (2007a): Daily changes in parameters of energy metabolism in brain of rainbow trout: dependence on feeding. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 146, 265–273.
Polakof S., Miguez J.M., Soengas J.L. (2007b): Daily changes in parameters of energy metabolism in liver, white muscle, and gills of rainbow trout: dependence on feeding. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 147, 363–374.
Ruane N. M., Huisman E. A., Komen J. (2001): Plasma cortisol and metabolite level profiles in two isogenic strains of common carp during confinement. Journal of Fish Biology, 59, 1-12 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2001.tb02334.x
Santos G.A., Schrama J.W., Mamauag R.E.P., Rombout J.H.W.M., Verreth J.A.J. (2010): Chronic stress impairs performance, energy metabolism and welfare indicators in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax): The combined effects of fish crowding and water quality deterioration. Aquaculture, 299, 73-80 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.11.018
Teles M., Oliveira M., Pacheco M., Santos M.A. (2005): Endocrine and metabolic changes in Anguilla anguilla L. following exposure to β-naphthoflavone—a microsomal enzyme inducer. Environment International, 31, 99-104 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2004.07.003
Tintos Adrián, Gesto Manuel, Míguez Jesús M., Soengas José L. (2007): Naphthalene treatment alters liver intermediary metabolism and levels of steroid hormones in plasma of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 66, 139-147 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2005.11.008
ULRICH F (): THE INHIBITION OF MITOCHONDRIAL ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATASE. THE EFFECTS OF ALKALI-METAL IONS. Biochemical Journal, 88, 193-206 https://doi.org/10.1042/bj0880193
Üner Nevin, Oruç Elif, Sevgiler Yusuf (2005): Oxidative stress-related and ATPase effects of etoxazole in different tissues of Oreochromis niloticus. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 20, 99-106 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2004.11.006
Vijayan Mathilakath M., Feist Grant, Otto Diana M.E., Schreck Carl B., Moon Tom W. (1997): 3,3′,4,4′-Tetrachlorobiphenyl affects cortisol dynamics and hepatic function in rainbow trout. Aquatic Toxicology, 37, 87-98 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-445X(96)00828-4
Whalen M (1999): Immunotoxicity of Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Butyltins on Human Natural Killer Cells in Vitro. Environmental Research, 81, 108-116 https://doi.org/10.1006/enrs.1999.3968
Xu Jianyu, Liu Ying, Cui Shaorong, Miao Xiangwen (2006): Behavioral responses of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to acute fluctuations in dissolved oxygen levels as monitored by computer vision. Aquacultural Engineering, 35, 207-217 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2006.02.004
Zhang Jiliang, Zuo Zhenghong, Chen Rong, Chen Yixin, Wang Chonggang (2008): Tributyltin exposure causes brain damage in Sebastiscus marmoratus. Chemosphere, 73, 337-343 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.05.072