Production value and cost-effectiveness of pig fattening using liquid feeding or enzyme-supplemented dry mixes containing rye grain T., Turek A., Nowicki J., Tuz R., Rudzki B., Bartlewski P.M. (2016): Production value and cost-effectiveness of pig fattening using liquid feeding or enzyme-supplemented dry mixes containing rye grain. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 61: 341-350.
download PDF
The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of a fermented liquid feeding and enzyme supplementation of dry fodders containing rye grain for pig fattening. Two experiments were performed on 126 gilts (82 in Experiment 1 and 44 in Experiment 2) of hybrid Pig Improvement Company (PIC) lines. In both experiments, the pigs were randomly divided into two equinumeric groups (treatment vs control). In Experiment 1, the treatment group received a diet containing 25% of rye grain (cultivar Visello) in the grower and 50% in the finisher period, replacing a proportion of barley from control mixes, and the fodders were given as pre-fermented liquid feed twice daily. In Experiment 2, both the control and experimental diets contained rye grain at the same quantities as the experimental group in Experiment 1, but the mixes for the treatment groups were supplemented with 0.01% of xylanase and fed in dry form. There were no differences in the mean growth rate or feed conversion ratio between the control and experimental groups of gilts. In Experiment 1, there was no effect of rye feeding on backfat thickness, loin depth, and meatiness, and hence the final carcass price, but the overall cost of fattening was lower by 5.1% in rye-fed pigs, which resulted in an 11.3% surplus. In Experiment 2, the backfat thickness was significantly greater and the lean meat content lower in the experimental compared with control group of animals. In spite of these differences, the lower cost of feeding (by 3.4%) resulted in a 5.2% increment in the economic efficiency of production of pigs receiving enzyme-supplemented mixes. It can be concluded that, in comparison to traditional barley-based nutrition, the pig fattening utilizing rye grain in wet fermented mixes is more profitable. The increased bottom-line profits of using dry rye mixes with carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes appear to be associated with declining carcass quality.
Benz J. M., Tokach M. D., Dritz S. S., Nelssen J. L., DeRouchey J. M., Sulabo R. C., Goodband R. D. (): Effects of increasing choice white grease in corn- and sorghum-based diets on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and fat quality characteristics of finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 89, 773-782
Boros D., Marquardt R.R., Slominski B.A., Guenter W. (1993): Extract viscosity as an indirect assay for water-soluble pentosan content in rye. Cereal Chemistry, 70, 575–580.
Brooks P.H., Beal J.D., Niven S. (2001): Liquid feeding for pigs: potential for reducing environmental impact and improving productivity and food safety. In: Corbett J.L. (ed.): Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition in Australia. University of New England, Armidale, Australia, 49–63.
Bushuk W. (2001): Rye: production and uses worldwide. Cereal Food World, 46, 70–73.
de Greef K.H, Verstegen M.W.A (1993): Partitioning of protein and lipid deposition in the body of growing pigs. Livestock Production Science, 35, 317-328
de Greef K. H., Verstegen M. W. A., Kemp B., van der Togt P. L. (1994): The effect of body weight and energy intake on the composition of deposited tissue in pigs. Animal Science, 58, 263-270
De Lange C.F.M., Zhu C.H., Niven S., Columbus D., Woods D. (2006): Swine liquid feeding: nutritional considerations. In: Proc. 27thWestern Nutrition Conference, Winnipeg, Canada, 37–50.
DLG (2011): DLG Feed Value Tables for Pigs. University of Hohenheim, Hohenheim, Germany. (in German)
EFSA (2011): Scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of Danisco Xylanase G/L (endo-1,4-beta-xylanase) as feed additive for weaned piglets and pigs for fattening. EFSA Journal, 9, 1–13.
Hanczakowska E., Koczywas E. (2008): Application of non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzymes in pig nutrition. Wiadomości Zootechniczne, 46, 9–16. (in Polish)
Hoffmann F., Wenzel G. (1981): Selfcompatibility in microspore-derived doubled-haploid rye lines and single grain selection for alkylresorcinol content. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 60, -
Hooper W., Horne P., McKellop A., Perry M., Roloson A., Mutch I., Ling A., Mol D., Rogers T., Milton R., Dalziel L., Pratt D., Delaney M. (2002): Optimal whole soybean inclusion rate for commercial swine diets and the use of rye as a feed ingredient for swine rations on Prince Edward Island, Canada. Final Report for Pei Pork, Industry Chair for Swine Research. Available from: (assessed Aug 11, 2016).
Im Hew Lap, Ravindran Velmurugu, Ravindran Ganesharanee, Pittolo Philip H, Bryden Wayne L (1999): The apparent metabolisable energy and amino acid digestibility of wheat, triticale and wheat middlings for broiler chickens as affected by exogenous xylanase supplementation. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 79, 1727-1732<1727::AID-JSFA428>3.0.CO;2-K
Johnson R., Williams P., Campbell R. (1993): Use of enzymes in pig production. In: Wenk C., Boessinger M.E. (eds): Enzymes in Animal Nutrition: Proceedings of the 1st Symposium. Institut für Nutztierwissenchaften, Kartause Ittingen, Switzerland, 49–60.
Jürgens Hans-Ulrich, Jansen Gisela, Wegener Christina Birgid (2012): Characterisation of Several Rye Cultivars with Respect to Arabinoxylans and Extract Viscosity. Journal of Agricultural Science, 4, -
Kim S.W., Baker D.H. (2003): Use of enzyme supplements in pig diets based on soybean meal. Pig News and Information, 24, 91–96.
Kornegay E T, Rhein-Welker D, Lindemann M D, Wood C M (1995): Performance and nutrient digestibility in weanling pigs as influenced by yeast culture additions to starter diets containing dried whey or one of two fiber sources.. Journal of Animal Science, 73, 1381-
Lampe J. F., Baas T. J., Mabry J. W. (2006): Comparison of grain sources for swine diets and their effect on meat and fat quality traits. Journal of Animal Science, 84, 1022-
Makarska E., Gruszecka D., Gardzielewska A. (2007): The content of alkylresorcinols and tripsin inhibitors activity in translocational rye strains and parental components Secale cereale (L.) and Dasypyrum villosum (L.) P. Candargy. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska, 62, 117–212.
Niven S.J., Zhu C., Columbus D., Pluske J.R., de Lange C.F.M. (2007): Impact of controlled fermentation and steeping of high moisture corn on its nutritional value for pigs. Livestock Science, 109, 166-169
Omogbenigun F. O., Nyachoti C. M., Slominski B. A. (2004): Dietary supplementation with multienzyme preparations improves nutrient utilization and growth performance in weaned pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 82, 1053-
Schwarz Tomasz, Kuleta Wiktor, Turek Artur, Tuz Ryszard, Nowicki Jacek, Rudzki Bartosz, Bartlewski Pawel M. (2014): Assessing the efficiency of using a modern hybrid rye cultivar for pig fattening, with emphasis on production costs and carcass quality. Animal Production Science, , -
Sedlet K., Mathias M., Lorenz K. (1984): Growth depressing effect of 5-n-pentadecylresorcinol: a model for cereal alkylresorcinols. Cereal Chemistry, 61, 239–241.
Sosulski F. W., Minja L. A., Christensen D. A. (1988): Trypsin inhibitors and nutritive value in cereals. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 38, 23-34
Sullivan Z., Honeyman M., Gibson L. (2005): Feeding small grains to swine. Iowa State University, Ames, USA. Available from: (accessed Aug 11, 2016).
Thacker P. A., Campbell G. L., GrootWassink J. W. D. (1992): Effect of salinomycin and enzyme supplementation on nutrient digestibility and the performance of pigs fed barley- or rye-based diets. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 72, 117-125
Thacker P., Campbell G., Scoles G. (1999): Performance of young growing pigs (17-34 kg) fedrye-based diets selected for reduced viscosity. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences, 8, 549-556
Thacker P. A., Mcleod J. G., Campbell G. L. (2002): Performance of Growing-Finishing Pigs Fed Diets Based on Normal or Low Viscosity Rye Fed With and Without Enzyme Supplementation. Archiv für Tierernaehrung, 56, 361-370
van Heugten E., Funderburke D. W., Dorton K. L. (2003): Growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and fecal microflora in weanling pigs fed live yeast. Journal of Animal Science, 81, 1004-
van Winsen R. L., Urlings B. A. P., Lipman L. J. A., Snijders J. M. A., Keuzenkamp D., Verheijden J. H. M., van Knapen F. (2001): Effect of Fermented Feed on the Microbial Population of the Gastrointestinal Tracts of Pigs. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 67, 3071-3076
Wenk C. (2000): Recent Advances in Animal Feed Additives such as Metabolic Modifiers, Antimicrobial Agents, Probiotics, Enzymes and Highly Available Minerals - Review -. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 13, 86-95
download PDF

© 2022 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti