In vitro fermentation pattern in the large intestine of hybrids between wild boars and domestic pigs – a preliminary studyśta D., Króliczewska B., Pecka-Kiełb E., Bujok J., Zawadzki W., Górecka J., Piekarska J. (2016): In vitro fermentation pattern in the large intestine of hybrids between wild boars and domestic pigs – a preliminary study. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 61: 506-514.
download PDF
Breeding of hybrids between wild boars and domestic pigs is in the consumer interest because of the need to ensure food security and diversification via widening the genetic basis of animals reared for meat. To expand the knowledge about their nutritional requirements, this study aimed to investigate hindgut fermentation in these animals. Caecal and colon cultures were incubated for 12 h in vitro with or without wheat bran as a supplementary substrate. Short-chain fatty acids, ammonia, methane, and total gas production were determined. The total concentrations of short-chain fatty acids in unincubated caecal and colon samples were 93.1 and 115 mmol/kg, respectively. The short-chain fatty acid profile in fresh hindgut contents was characterized by a high molar proportion of acetate (74.8–75.0 mol%), followed by propionate (18.2–18.5 mol%) and butyrate (5.4–5.5 mol%). The presence of wheat bran lowered acetate and increased butyrate, propionate, and valerate molar proportions. The ammonia level remained low (1.3–2.43 mmol/kg) regardless of the addition of the substrate. The relatively low pH and ammonia concentration in wild boar/pig hybrids may be caused by the low level of crude protein in diet of these animals. The rate of methanogenesis increased during the fermentation simultaneously with an increase in the production of gases after wheat bran addition. Methane production in the caecal and colon samples incubated with the substrate reached 15.6 and 16.1 mmol/kg, respectively. The hindgut fermentation pattern in wild boar/pig hybrids generally resembled that described earlier in domestic pigs, although some observed dissimilarities may be caused by distinct microbial activity.
Aarnink A.J.A., Verstegen M.W.A. (2007): Nutrition, key factor to reduce environmental load from pig production. Livestock Science, 109, 194-203
Adjiri D., Bouillier-Oudot M., Lebas F., Candau M. (1992): Simulation in vitro des fermentations cæcales du lapin en fermenteur à flux semi-continu. I. Rôle du prétraitement du substrat alimentaire. Reproduction Nutrition Development, 32, 351-360
AOAC (2005): Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 18th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, USA.
Bergman E.N. (1990): Energy contributions of volatile fatty acids from the gastrointestinal tract in various species. Physiology Review, 70, 567–590.
Bikker P., Dirkzwager A., Fledderus J., Trevisi P., le Huerou-Luron I., Lalles J. P., Awati A. (2006): The effect of dietary protein and fermentable carbohydrates levels on growth performance and intestinal characteristics in newly weaned piglets. Journal of Animal Science, 84, 3337-3345
Casadei G., Grilli E., Piva A. (): Pediocin A modulates intestinal microflora metabolism in swine in vitro intestinal fermentations. Journal of Animal Science, 87, 2020-2028
Christensen Dorthe N, Knudsen Knud Erik Bach, Wolstrup Jens, Jensen Bent Borg (1999): Integration of ileum cannulated pigs andin vitro fermentation to quantify the effect of diet composition on the amount of short-chain fatty acids available from fermentation in the large intestine. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 79, 755-762<755::AID-JSFA248>3.0.CO;2-2
Conway P.L. (1994): Function and regulation of the gastrointestinal microbiota of the pig. In: Souffrant W.B., Hagemeister H. (eds): Proc. 6th Internat. Symposium on Digestive Physiology in Pigs, Dummerstorf, Germany, 231–240.
De Graeve K.G., Grivet J.P., Durand M., Beaumatin P., Cordelet C., Hannequart G., Demeyer D. (1994): Competition between reductive acetogenesis and methanogenesis in the pig large-intestinal flora. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 76, 55-61
Eijck I. A. J. M., Borgsteede F. H. M. (2005): A Survey of Gastrointestinal Pig Parasites on Free-range, Organic and Conventional Pig Farms in The Netherlands. Veterinary Research Communications, 29, 407-414
Govers M J A P, Gannon N J, Dunshea F R, Gibson P R, Muir J G (1999): Wheat bran affects the site of fermentation of resistant starch and luminal indexes related to colon cancer risk: a study in pigs. Gut, 45, 840-847
Holst D.O. (1973): Holst filtration apparatus for Van Soest detergent fiber analysis. Journal of AOAC International, 56, 1352–1356.
Jankowska-Mąkosa A., Knecht D. (2015): The influence of endoparasites on selected production parameters in pigs in various housing systems. Research in Veterinary Science, 100, 153-160
Jensen B.B., Jorgensen H. (1994): Effect of dietary fiber on microbial activity and microbial gas production in various regions of the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 60, 1897–1904.
Jha Rajesh, Berrocoso Julio F.D. (2016): Dietary fiber and protein fermentation in the intestine of swine and their interactive effects on gut health and on the environment: A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 212, 18-26
Jorgensen H., Theil P.K., Bach Knudsen K.E. (2011): Enteric methane emission from pigs. In: Carayannis E.G. (ed.): Planet Earth 2011 – Global Warming Challenges and Opportunities. InTech, Rijeka, 605–622.
Kaczmarek P., Rzasa A. (2005): Effect of diet containing fish meal on physicochemical and organoleptical properties of fatteners meat. Roczniki Naukowe Polskiego Towarzystwa Zootechnicznego, 1, 359–366. (in Polish)
Klimas R., Klimiene A. (2010): Some biological characteristics of hybrids (Sus domesticus × Sus scrofa L.). Acta Biologica Universitatis Daugavpiliensis, 10, 31–36.
Le Goff G., Noblet J., Cherbut C. (2003): Intrinsic ability of the faecal microbial flora to ferment dietary fibre at different growth stages of pigs. Livestock Production Science, 81, 75-87
Leroch R., Fuchs B., Szuba-Trznadel A. (2003): Comparison of the digestive tracts in swine, wild boars and in the swine × boars hybrids. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Zootechnica, 2, 47–54.
Loh G., Eberhard M., Brunner R.M., Hennig U., Kuhla S., Kleessen B., Metges C.C. (2006): Inulin alters the intestinal microbiota and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in growing pigs regardless of their basal diet. Journal of Nutrition, 136, 1198–1202.
Marounek M., Savka O. G., Skřivanová V. (1997): Effect of salinomycin on in vitro caecal fermentation in pigs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 77, 111-116
Marounek M., Adamec T., Skřivanová V., Latsik N. I. (): Nitrogen and in vitro Fermentation of Nitrogenous Substrates in Caecal Contents of the Pig. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 71, 429-433
Mista D., Kroliczewska B., Marounek M., Pecka E., Zawadzki W., Nicpon J. (2015): In vitro study and comparison of caecal methanogenesis and fermentation pattern in the brown hare (Lepus europaeus) and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). PLoS ONE, 10, e0117117.
Molist F., de Segura A. Gómez, Gasa J., Hermes R.G., Manzanilla E.G., Anguita M., Pérez J.F. (2009): Effects of the insoluble and soluble dietary fibre on the physicochemical properties of digesta and the microbial activity in early weaned piglets. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 149, 346-353
National Research Council (2001): Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th Ed. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA.
O'Shea C. J., Sweeney T., Lynch M. B., Callan J. J., O'Doherty J. V. (): Modification of selected bacteria and markers of protein fermentation in the distal gastrointestinal tract of pigs upon consumption of chitosan is accompanied by heightened manure odor emissions. Journal of Animal Science, 89, 1366-1375
Pagan J.D. (2011): Fermentation key for wide range of species. Feedstuffs, 83, 10(2).
Pecka-Kiełb Ewa, Bujok Jolanta, Miśta Dorota, Króliczewska Bożena, Górecka Justyna, Zawadzki Wojciech (2016): <I>In Vitro</I> Study of Caecal and Colon Microbial Fermentation Patterns in Wild Boar (<I>Sus scrofa scrofa</I>). Folia Biologica, 64, 31-36
Petkevičius S, Bach Knudsen K.E, Murrell K.D (2003): Effects of Oesophagostomum dentatum and dietary carbohydrates on morphology of the large intestine of pigs. Veterinary Parasitology, 116, 125-138
PETKEVICIUS S., THOMSEN L. E., BACH KNUDSEN K. E., MURRELL K. D., ROEPSTORFF A., BOES J. (2007): The effect of inulin on new and on patent infections of Trichuris suis in growing pigs. Parasitology, 134, 121-127
Pieper Robert, Jha Rajesh, Rossnagel Brian, Van Kessel Andrew G., Souffrant Wolfgang B., Leterme Pascal (2008): Effect of barley and oat cultivars with different carbohydrate compositions on the intestinal bacterial communities in weaned piglets. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 66, 556-566
Razmaite V., Kerziene S., Jatkauskiene V. (2009): Body and carcass measurements and organ weights of Lithuanian indigenous pigs and their wild boar hybrids. Animal Science Papers and Reports, 27, 331–342.
Sanderson I.R. (2004): Short chain fatty acid regulation of signaling genes expressed by the intestinal epithelium. The Journal of Nutrition, 134, 2450–2454.
Shim S. B., Verdonk J. M. A. J., Pellikaan W. F., Verstegen M. W. A. (2007): Differences in Microbial Activities of Faeces from Weaned and Unweaned Pigs in Relation to In vitro Fermentation of Different Sources of Inulin-type Oligofructose and Pig Feed Ingredients. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 20, 1444-1452
Soren N.M., Sejian V., Malik P.K. (2015): Enteric methane emission under different feeding systems. In: Sejian V., Gaughan J., Baumgard L., Prasad C. (eds): Climate Change Impact on Livestock: Adaptation and Mitigation. Springer (India) Private Ltd, New Delhi, 187–208.
Suárez-Belloch J., Doti S., Rodríguez-Romero N., Guada J. A., Fondevila M., Latorre M. A. (2013): Hindgut fermentation in pigs induced by diets with different sources of starch. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 11, 780-
Van Nevel Christian J., Dierick Noel A., Decuypere Jaak A., De Smet Stefaan M. (2006): In vitro fermentability and physicochemical properties of fibre substrates and their effect on bacteriological and morphological characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract of newly weaned piglets. Archives of Animal Nutrition, 60, 477-500
Váradyová Z, Zeleňák I, Siroka P, Dubinský P (2001): In vitro fermentation of cellulosis amorphous and meadow hay in experimentally Ascaris suum-infected lambs. Small Ruminant Research, 40, 155-164
download PDF

© 2020 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti