Reduction in the content of antinutritional substances in pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) by different treatments

https://doi.org/10.17221/4257-CJASCitation:Dvořák R., Pechová A., Pavlata L., Filípek J., Dostálová J., Réblová Z., Klejdus B., Kovařčík K., Poul J. (2005): Reduction in the content of antinutritional substances in pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) by different treatments. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 50: 519-527.
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The goal of the trial was to reduce the content of antinutritional substances in pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds in order to enhance its use in livestock nutrition. A variety of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) with a high content of antinutritional substances and favourable production traits (Gotik) was chosen. Native and heat-treated pea seeds were used to collect representative samples (n = 6) for analytical purposes. The technology (V-0 technology, Czech patent No. 285745) was further modified by adjusting the reactor temperature, the duration of exposure to that temperature, and the duration of ageing of the material treated in this way (V-I and V-II technologies). The methodology of treatment is based on exposing pea seeds to vapour, organic acids and selected oxides.The monitored parameters included antinutritional substances. As far as the antinutritional substances were concerned, the content of trypsin inhibitors in native pea seeds (P) was around 15.4 ± 0.5 TIU. After treatment with technologies V-0, V-I, and V-II its activity dropped by 83.8, 80.5 and 83.8%, respectively. The pre-treatment titre of lectins (P) was 717 ± 376. It dropped by 70.3, 35.7 and 73.2% after treatment with technologies V-0, V-I and V-II, respectively. The content of tannins measured by the amount of gallic acid in native pea seeds was 49.1 ± 2.7 mg per kg. It dropped by 41.4, 32.0 and 46.2% after the application of the above-mentioned technologies. The content of indigestible oligosaccharides causing flatulence was less affected by the treatments. The pre-treatment content of raffinose was 9.5 ± 0.5 g/kg. The drop associated with the treatment was 9.5, 6.3 and 10.5%, respectively. The pre-treatment content of stachyose was 21.4 ± 0.8 g/kg and after treatment with technologies V-0 and V-II it dropped by 7.0% and by 16.4%, respectively. The application of technology V-I did not result in a drop in the content of stachyose. The content of verbascose in native pea seeds was 16.1 g/kgand the treatment with technologies V-0; V-I and V-II resulted in a drop by 7.5, 5.6 and 20.5%, respectively. As for the detected phenolic acids, with the exception of caffeic acid, not a drop, but an increase in their content was recorded. Isoflavone oestrogens such as daidzein and genistein also recorded a small increase in their content. The results of the trial lead us to conclude that the above-described methods of pea seed treatment, especially the V-II variant, proved to be useful and can be recommended for practical use.  
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