Characterization of blood redox status of early and mid-late lactating dairy cows

https://doi.org/10.17221/7341-CJASCitation:Cigliano L., Strazzullo M., Rossetti C., Grazioli G., Auriemma G., Sarubbi F., Iannuzzi C., Iannuzzi L., Spagnuolo M.S. (2014): Characterization of blood redox status of early and mid-late lactating dairy cows. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 59: 170-181.
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The effect of the stage of lactation on blood redox homeostasis of bovine and buffalo cows was evaluated. The investigation was carried out on early lactating and mid-late lactating cows, reared in a farm located in Campania (southern Italy). Plasma concentration of α-tocopherol and ascorbate, the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase activities were higher (P < 0.01) in mid-late lactating cows, thus suggesting a higher consumption of antioxidants during early lactation. Plasma concentration of protein-bound carbonyls (PC) and nitrotyrosine (N-Tyr), and the level of lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) were higher (P < 0.01) in early lactating cows, thus suggesting that lipid peroxidation and peroxynitrite production are crucial in determining oxidative modifications in plasma. TAC was positively correlated with ascorbate concentration (P < 0.03), and negatively correlated with PC concentration (P < 0.002), and ascorbate was negatively correlated with PC (P < 0.03) in mid-late lactating group. These findings demonstrate that circulating ascorbate plays a major role in preventing protein modifications induced by carbonyls, and that ascorbate scavenging effect is impaired during early lactation. We calculated a protein oxidative stress index as the ratio (PC + N-Tyr)/TAC multiplied by 100, and we found that this parameter was higher (P < 0.0001) in early lactating cows. Therefore, it could be useful for assessing the extent of protein oxidative damage in relation to the whole antioxidant status. Further, we suggest that the LPO/GPx ratio multiplied by 100 might be used as lipid oxidative stress index in lactating cows. This index was higher (P < 0.0001) in early lactating cows, and might represent a standard parameter for evaluating the lipid damage depending on a deficiency of the enzymatic antioxidant defence. These parameters are proposed for a possible effective description of physiological changes associated with lactation.  
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