Crypto-tobiano horses in Hucul breed

https://doi.org/10.17221/7905-CJASCitation:Stachurska A., Jansen P. (2015): Crypto-tobiano horses in Hucul breed. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 60: 1-9.
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The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis that the crypto-tobiano horses which do not exhibit the full tobiano white-spotting pattern nonetheless transmit the dominant To gene to the progeny. The study was conducted on the Hucul population. Seven horses with white patches on their limbs, and with or without a small patch on the head, neck or trunk, were selected. At least one of the parents of the horses had to be tobiano or crypto-tobiano. Occasionally such horses produced a tobiano foal from a crossing with a solid-coloured horse. The white patches of the horses used in our study were divided into categories. To identify the To gene, DNA was tested in the Animal Genetics Laboratory (UK). The ratio of non-tobiano, crypto-tobiano, and tobiano foals born from 36 matings of the studied horses was analyzed. The study substantiates the occurrence of crypto-tobiano horses in the Hucul breed. Horses that have patches on their limbs as well as a small white or intermingled patch on the head, neck or trunk, are crypto-tobianos, although crypto-tobianos may have no white on the head, neck, and trunk. The crypto-tobiano pattern occurs in horses which have a tobiano parent or grandparent. The results suggest that the activity of an inhibitor gene suppresses the To allele penetrance in the crypto-tobiano horses. As in the case of many white-spotting patterns, the presence of the To gene in a horse’s genotype should be documented by DNA testing or test matings.
References:
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Esumi Kunio, Takei Naoko, Yoshimura Tomokazu (2003): Antioxidant-potentiality of gold–chitosan nanocomposites. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 32, 117-123  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0927-7765(03)00151-6
 
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Renckens Rosemarijn, Roelofs Joris J. T. H., Knapp Sylvia, de Vos Alex F., Florquin Sandrine, van der Poll Tom (2006): The Acute‐Phase Response and Serum Amyloid A Inhibit the Inflammatory Response to Acinetobacter baumannii Pneumonia. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 193, 187-195  https://doi.org/10.1086/498876
 
Schley P.D., Field C.J. (2002): The immune-enhancing effects of dietary fibres and prebiotics. British Journal of Nutrition, 87, S221–S230.
 
Siwicki Andrzej K., Anderson Douglas P., Rumsey Gary L. (1994): Dietary intake of immunostimulants by rainbow trout affects non-specific immunity and protection against furunculosis. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 41, 125-139  https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-2427(94)90062-0
 
Song C.Y., Jiang J.Y., Han X.J., Shi J.S., Wei S.D. (2010): Effects of immunological stress on interleukin-1β, cortisol and growth hormone in different breed piglets. Reproduction and Physiology, 46, 19–22. (in Chinese)
 
Sun T., Yao Q., Zhou D., Mao F. (2008): Antioxidant activity of N-carboxymethyl chitosan oligosaccharides. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 18, 5774–5776.
 
Tokura S., Tamura H., Azuma I. (1999): Immunological aspects of chitin and chitin derivatives administered to animals. EXS, 87, 279–292.
 
Tomida Hisao, Fujii Takeshi, Furutani Nobuko, Michihara Akihiro, Yasufuku Taira, Akasaki Kenji, Maruyama Toru, Otagiri Masaki, Gebicki Janusz M., Anraku Makoto (2009): Antioxidant properties of some different molecular weight chitosans. Carbohydrate Research, 344, 1690-1696  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carres.2009.05.006
 
UEHARA SOICHIRO, GOTHOH KATSUHIRO, HANDA HIROSHI, TOMITA HIROSHI, TOMITA YOSHIMURA (2003): Immune function in patients with acute pancreatitis. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 18, 363-370  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1746.2003.02979.x
 
Xiao Dingfu, Tang Zhiru, Yin Yulong, Zhang Bin, Hu Xionggui, Feng Zemeng, Wang Jinquan (2013): Effects of dietary administering chitosan on growth performance, jejunal morphology, jejunal mucosal sIgA, occluding, claudin-1 and TLR4 expression in weaned piglets challenged by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. International Immunopharmacology, 17, 670-676  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2013.07.023
 
Xu Y., Shi B., Yan S., Li J., Li T., Guo Y., Guo X. (2014): Effects of chitosan supplementation on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and digestive enzyme activity in weaned pigs. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 59, 156–163.
 
Yin J., Wu M. M., Xiao H., Ren W. K., Duan J. L., Yang G., Li T. J., Yin Y. L. (): Development of an antioxidant system after early weaning in piglets. Journal of Animal Science, 92, 612-619  https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2013-6986
 
Yin Y.-L., Tang Z. R., Sun Z. H., Liu Z. Q., Li T. J., Huang R. L., Ruan Z., Deng Z. Y., Gao B., Chen L. X., Wu G. Y., Kim S. W. (2008): Effect of Galacto-mannan-oligosaccharides or Chitosan Supplementation on Cytoimmunity and Humoral Immunity in Early-weaned Piglets. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 21, 723-731  https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2008.70408
 
Yoon Hyun Joong, Moon Myoung E., Park Haeng Soon, Kim Hyun Woo, Im Shun Young, Lee Jun Haeng, Kim Young Ho (2008): Effects of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) on the glycerol-induced acute renal failure in vitro and in vivo. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46, 710-716  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2007.09.111
 
Yu P., Zhao Y.G., Shi B.L., Yan S.M., Hong L., Xu Y.Q., Guo Y.W., Tian L.X. (2012): Effects of dietary supplementation of chitosan on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in beef cattle. Journal of Feed Industry, 33, 44–47. (in Chinese)
 
Zhang J. (2012): Effects of dietary immunostimulants on growth, non-specific immune response and stress resistance of juvenile pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Ph.D. Thesis. Guang Zhou, Sun Yat-sen University.
 
Afonso Valéry, Champy Romuald, Mitrovic Dragoslav, Collin Pascal, Lomri Abderrahim (2007): Reactive oxygen species and superoxide dismutases: Role in joint diseases. Joint Bone Spine, 74, 324-329  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbspin.2007.02.002
 
Anandan R., Ganesan B., Obulesu T., Mathew S., Asha K. K., Lakshmanan P. T., Zynudheen A. A. (2013): Antiaging effect of dietary chitosan supplementation on glutathione-dependent antioxidant system in young and aged rats. Cell Stress and Chaperones, 18, 121-125  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12192-012-0354-2
 
Cui Jun-Jian, Yuan Jiang-Feng, Zhang Zhi-Qi (2010): Anti-oxidation activity of the crude polysaccharides isolated from Polygonum Cillinerve (Nakai) Ohwi in immunosuppressed mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 132, 512-517  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.08.052
 
David A.Z., Connie J.R., Kenneth W.H., Jeffrey S., John W.G. (2007): Chitosan solution enhances both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to subcutaneous vaccination. Vaccine, 11, 2085–2094.
 
Esumi Kunio, Takei Naoko, Yoshimura Tomokazu (2003): Antioxidant-potentiality of gold–chitosan nanocomposites. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 32, 117-123  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0927-7765(03)00151-6
 
Frey Andreas, Di Canzio James, Zurakowski David (1998): A statistically defined endpoint titer determination method for immunoassays. Journal of Immunological Methods, 221, 35-41  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1759(98)00170-7
 
Guo Zhanyong, Xing Ronge, Liu Song, Zhong Zhimei, Li Pengcheng (2008): Synthesis and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity of quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan. Carbohydrate Polymers, 73, 173-177  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2007.10.021
 
Johnson R.W. (1997): Inhibition of growth by pro-inflammatory cytokines: an integrated view. Journal of Animal Science, 75, 1244–1255.
 
Kong X.F., Zhou X.L., Lian G.Q., Blachier F., Liu G., Tan B.E, Nyachoti C.M., Yin Y.L. (2014): Dietary supplementation with chitooligosaccharides alters gut microbiota and modifies intestinal luminal metabolites in weaned Huanjiang mini-piglets. Livestock Science, 160, 97-101  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2013.11.023
 
Li H.Y. (2009): Effects of chitosan on immune function in broilers and the underlying mechanisms. Ph.D. Thesis. Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University. (in Chinese)
 
Li H. Y., Yan S. M., Shi B. L., Guo X. Y. (2009): Effect of Chitosan on Nitric Oxide Content and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity in Serum and Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase mRNA in Small Intestine of Broiler Chickens. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 22, 1048-1053  https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2009.80708
 
Li Junliang, Shi Binlin, Yan Sumei, Jin Lu, Guo Yiwei, Xu Yuanqing, Li Tiyu, Guo Xiaoyu (2013): Effects of dietary supplementation of chitosan on humoral and cellular immune function in weaned piglets. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 186, 204-208  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2013.10.007
 
Lim B.O., Yamada K., Nonaka M., Kuramoto Y., Hung P., Sugano M. (1997): Dietary fibers modulate indices of intestinal immune function in rats. Journal of Nutrition, 127, 663–667.
 
Liu M., Shi T., Liu J.Q. (2011): Effects of chitosan on anti-oxidative function and immune organ index in broilers. Journal of Chinese Feed, 15, 22–25. (in Chinese)
 
Liu Q.H., Liang X.W., Wang G.L. (2007): Effects of dietary supplementation of chitosan on dry matter intake and blood parameters for dry dairy cows. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences, 16, 430–435.
 
McKee Amy S., Munks Michael W., Marrack Philippa (2007): How Do Adjuvants Work? Important Considerations for New Generation Adjuvants. Immunity, 27, 687-690  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2007.11.003
 
Metcalfe Dean D. (1991): Food allergy. Current Opinion in Immunology, 3, 881-886  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0952-7915(05)80007-X
 
NRC (2000): Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. 7th Ed. The National Academies Press, Washington, USA.
 
Ouali Ahmed, Herrera-Mendez Carlos Hernan, Coulis Gerald, Becila Samira, Boudjellal Abdelghani, Aubry Laurent, Sentandreu Miguel Angel (2006): Revisiting the conversion of muscle into meat and the underlying mechanisms. Meat Science, 74, 44-58  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.05.010
 
Ren H.J. (2008): Effects of chitosan on production performance and immune function in dairy cattle. Ph.D. Thesis. Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University. (in Chinese)
 
Renckens Rosemarijn, Roelofs Joris J. T. H., Knapp Sylvia, de Vos Alex F., Florquin Sandrine, van der Poll Tom (2006): The Acute‐Phase Response and Serum Amyloid A Inhibit the Inflammatory Response to Acinetobacter baumannii Pneumonia. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 193, 187-195  https://doi.org/10.1086/498876
 
Schley P.D., Field C.J. (2002): The immune-enhancing effects of dietary fibres and prebiotics. British Journal of Nutrition, 87, S221–S230.
 
Siwicki Andrzej K., Anderson Douglas P., Rumsey Gary L. (1994): Dietary intake of immunostimulants by rainbow trout affects non-specific immunity and protection against furunculosis. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 41, 125-139  https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-2427(94)90062-0
 
Song C.Y., Jiang J.Y., Han X.J., Shi J.S., Wei S.D. (2010): Effects of immunological stress on interleukin-1β, cortisol and growth hormone in different breed piglets. Reproduction and Physiology, 46, 19–22. (in Chinese)
 
Sun T., Yao Q., Zhou D., Mao F. (2008): Antioxidant activity of N-carboxymethyl chitosan oligosaccharides. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 18, 5774–5776.
 
Tokura S., Tamura H., Azuma I. (1999): Immunological aspects of chitin and chitin derivatives administered to animals. EXS, 87, 279–292.
 
Tomida Hisao, Fujii Takeshi, Furutani Nobuko, Michihara Akihiro, Yasufuku Taira, Akasaki Kenji, Maruyama Toru, Otagiri Masaki, Gebicki Janusz M., Anraku Makoto (2009): Antioxidant properties of some different molecular weight chitosans. Carbohydrate Research, 344, 1690-1696  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carres.2009.05.006
 
UEHARA SOICHIRO, GOTHOH KATSUHIRO, HANDA HIROSHI, TOMITA HIROSHI, TOMITA YOSHIMURA (2003): Immune function in patients with acute pancreatitis. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 18, 363-370  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1746.2003.02979.x
 
Xiao Dingfu, Tang Zhiru, Yin Yulong, Zhang Bin, Hu Xionggui, Feng Zemeng, Wang Jinquan (2013): Effects of dietary administering chitosan on growth performance, jejunal morphology, jejunal mucosal sIgA, occluding, claudin-1 and TLR4 expression in weaned piglets challenged by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. International Immunopharmacology, 17, 670-676  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2013.07.023
 
Xu Y., Shi B., Yan S., Li J., Li T., Guo Y., Guo X. (2014): Effects of chitosan supplementation on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and digestive enzyme activity in weaned pigs. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 59, 156–163.
 
Yin J., Wu M. M., Xiao H., Ren W. K., Duan J. L., Yang G., Li T. J., Yin Y. L. (): Development of an antioxidant system after early weaning in piglets. Journal of Animal Science, 92, 612-619  https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2013-6986
 
Yin Y.-L., Tang Z. R., Sun Z. H., Liu Z. Q., Li T. J., Huang R. L., Ruan Z., Deng Z. Y., Gao B., Chen L. X., Wu G. Y., Kim S. W. (2008): Effect of Galacto-mannan-oligosaccharides or Chitosan Supplementation on Cytoimmunity and Humoral Immunity in Early-weaned Piglets. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 21, 723-731  https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2008.70408
 
Yoon Hyun Joong, Moon Myoung E., Park Haeng Soon, Kim Hyun Woo, Im Shun Young, Lee Jun Haeng, Kim Young Ho (2008): Effects of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) on the glycerol-induced acute renal failure in vitro and in vivo. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46, 710-716  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2007.09.111
 
Yu P., Zhao Y.G., Shi B.L., Yan S.M., Hong L., Xu Y.Q., Guo Y.W., Tian L.X. (2012): Effects of dietary supplementation of chitosan on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in beef cattle. Journal of Feed Industry, 33, 44–47. (in Chinese)
 
Zhang J. (2012): Effects of dietary immunostimulants on growth, non-specific immune response and stress resistance of juvenile pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Ph.D. Thesis. Guang Zhou, Sun Yat-sen University.
 
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