The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with hemp seed oil (HSO) on the lipid metabolism, through the plasma lipid profile, liver function and concentrations of fatty acids (FA), cholesterol, and vitamin A in goat milk. Ten Carpathian goats were divided into two groups: one was fed the control diet (C) composed of alfalfa hay and concentrate, and the other was fed C diet supplemented with 93 g/day of HSO (4.7% of dry matter intake) for 31 days. The HSO supplementation did not modify plasma cholesterol, triglyceride or phospholipid concentrations, or the activities of alanine aminotransferase or γ-glutamyltransferase, but plasma total lipid concentration was increased. HSO supplementation had no effect on milk yield, but it increased milk fat and protein contents. HSO supplementation markedly altered milk FA composition, but had no effect on milk cholesterol or vitamin A concentrations. Changes in milk FA composition corresponded to a decrease in saturated de novo synthesized FA (10:0-16:0) and an increase in 4:0, 18:0, and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Also, HSO supplementation strongly increased cis-9,trans-11-CLA and also trans-18:1 concentrations in milk fat. These findings suggest that HSO can be used to modify milk FA content with a putative positive effect on human health, without adversely affecting goat performance or health, except for a potential hyperlipidemic effect.
Altenhofer Christian, Spornraft Melanie, Kienberger Hermine, Rychlik Michael, Herrmann Julia, Meyer Heinrich HD, Viturro Enrique (2014): Effects of rapeseed and soybean oil dietary supplementation on bovine fat metabolism, fatty acid composition and cholesterol levels in milk. Journal of Dairy Research, 81, 120-128 https://doi.org/10.1017/S002202991300071X
Andrei S., Pintea A., Bunea A., Groza I., Bogdan L., Ciupe S., Matei S., Crainic D. (2009): Nonenzymatic antioxidants concentration and lipids peroxidation level in milk from cows with subclinical mastitis. Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. Veterinary Medicine, 66, 196–201.
Arnould V. M. -R., Soyeurt H. (2009): Genetic variability of milk fatty acids. Journal of Applied Genetics, 50, 29-39 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03195649
Bernard L., Bonnet M., Leroux C., Shingfield K.J., Chilliard Y. (2009a): Effect of sunflower-seed oil and linseed oil on tissue lipid metabolism, gene expression, and milk fatty acid secretion in Alpine goats fed maize silage-based diets. Journal of Dairy Science, 92, 6083–6094.
Bernard L., Shingfield K.J., Rouel J., Ferlay A., Chilliard Y. (2009b): Effect of plant oils in the diet on performance and milk fatty acid composition in goats fed diets based on grass hay or maize silage. British Journal of Nutrition, 101, 213–224.
Bernard Laurence, Montazer Torbati Mohamad B., Graulet Benoit, Leroux Christine, Chilliard Yves (2013): Long-chain fatty acids differentially alter lipogenesis in bovine and caprine mammary slices. Journal of Dairy Research, 80, 89-95 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029912000726
Bianchi Anderson E., Macedo Vicente P., França Raqueli T., Lopes Sonia T.A., Lopes Leandro S., Stefani Lenita M., Volpato Andréia, Lima Horácio L., Paiano Diovani, Machado Gustavo, Da Silva Aleksandro S. (2014): Effect of adding palm oil to the diet of dairy sheep on milk production and composition, function of liver and kidney, and the concentration of cholesterol, triglycerides and progesterone in blood serum. Small Ruminant Research, 117, 78-83 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2013.12.025
Bouattour M.A., Casals R., Albanell E., Such X., Caja G. (2008): Feeding Soybean Oil to Dairy Goats Increases Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 91, 2399-2407 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0753
Britton G., Liaaen-Jensen S., Pfander H. (eds) (2004): Carotenoids Handbook. Birkhauser Verlag AG, Basel, Switzerland.
Chilliard Yves, Ferlay Anne (2004): Dietary lipids and forages interactions on cow and goat milk fatty acid composition and sensory properties. Reproduction Nutrition Development, 44, 467-492 https://doi.org/10.1051/rnd:2004052
Chilliard Y., Ferlay A., Rouel J., Lamberet G. (2003): A Review of Nutritional and Physiological Factors Affecting Goat Milk Lipid Synthesis and Lipolysis. Journal of Dairy Science, 86, 1751-1770 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73761-8
Chilliard Yves, Glasser Frédéric, Ferlay Anne, Bernard Laurence, Rouel Jacques, Doreau Michel (2007): Diet, rumen biohydrogenation and nutritional quality of cow and goat milk fat. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 109, 828-855 https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.200700080
Coulon J.B., Remond B. (1991): Effects of variations in the energy supply on milk yield and milk composition in the dairy cow. INRA Productions Animales, 4, 49–56. (in French)
Da Porto C., Decorti D., Tubaro F. (2012): Fatty acid composition and oxidation stability of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide. Industrial Crops and Products, 36, 401-404 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.09.015
Djuricic D, Dobranic T, Grizelj J, Gracner D, Harapin I, Stanin D, Folnozic I, Getz I, Cvitkovic D, Samardzija M (2011): Concentrations of Total Proteins and Albumins, and AST, AP, CK and GGT Activities in the Blood Serum Boer and Saanen Goats During Puerperium. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 46, 674-677 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0531.2010.01726.x
Ferlay A., Martin B., Lerch S., Gobert M., Pradel P., Chilliard Y. (2010): Effects of supplementation of maize silage diets with extruded linseed, vitamin E and plant extracts rich in polyphenols, and morning v. evening milking on milk fatty acid profiles in Holstein and Montbéliarde cows. animal, 4, 627- https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731109991224
Ferlay A., Graulet B., Chilliard Y. (2013): Feeding control of fatty acid composition and vitamin content in the cow milk. INRA Productions Animales, 26, 177–192. (in French)
Fletouris D.J., Botsoglou N.A., Psomas I.E., Mantis A.I. (1998): Rapid Determination of Cholesterol in Milk and Milk Products by Direct Saponification and Capillary Gas Chromatography. Journal of Dairy Science, 81, 2833-2840 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75842-4
Folch J., Lees M., Stanley G.H.S. (1957): A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 226, 497–500.
Glasser F., Doreau M., Ferlay A., Chilliard Y. (2007): Technical Note: Estimation of Milk Fatty Acid Yield from Milk Fat Data. Journal of Dairy Science, 90, 2302-2304 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-870
Grum D.E., Drackley J.K., Hansen L.R., Cremin J.D. (1996): Production, Digestion, and Hepatic Lipid Metabolism of Dairy Cows Fed Increased Energy from Fat or Concentrate. Journal of Dairy Science, 79, 1836-1849 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(96)76552-9
Haenlein G.F.W (2004): Goat milk in human nutrition. Small Ruminant Research, 51, 155-163 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2003.08.010
Institut de l’Elevage France (2013): The goat economic year 2012. Available from http://www.hautespyrenees.chambagri.fr/fileadmin/documents/32_Animaux_Ovins_Autres/Annee_econom_caprine_2012.pdf (accessed May 18, 2014). (in French)
INRA (2007): ACattle, Sheep and Goat Nutrition. Recommended Allowances – Feed Tables. INRA, Versailles, France. (in French)
Jenkins T.C., McGuire M.A. (2006): Major Advances in Nutrition: Impact on Milk Composition. Journal of Dairy Science, 89, 1302-1310 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72198-1
Kondyli Efthymia, Katsiari Maria C., Voutsinas Leandros P. (2007): Variations of vitamin and mineral contents in raw goat milk of the indigenous Greek breed during lactation. Food Chemistry, 100, 226-230 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.09.038
Kupczynski R., Chudoba-Drozdowska B. (2002): Values of selected biochemical parameters of cows’ blood during their drying-off and the beginning of lactation. Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities, 5. Available from http://www.ejpau.media.pl/volume5/issue1/veterinary/art-01.html (accessed November 30, 2014).
Larsson Susanna C., Virtamo Jarmo, Wolk Alicja (2012): Dietary fats and dietary cholesterol and risk of stroke in women. Atherosclerosis, 221, 282-286 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.12.043
Li X.Z., Yan C.G., Lee H.G., Choi C.W., Song M.K. (2012): Influence of dietary plant oils on mammary lipogenic enzymes and the conjugated linoleic acid content of plasma and milk fat of lactating goats. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 174, 26-35 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2012.02.004
Lubojacká V., Pechová A., Dvořák R., Drastich P., Kummer V., Poul J. (): Liver Steatosis Following Supplementation with Fat in Dairy Cow Diets. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 74, 217-224 https://doi.org/10.2754/avb200574020217
Martínez Marín A.L., Gómez-Cortés P., Gómez Castro G., Juárez M., Pérez Alba L., Pérez Hernández M., de la Fuente M.A. (2012): Effects of feeding increasing dietary levels of high oleic or regular sunflower or linseed oil on fatty acid profile of goat milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 95, 1942-1955 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-4303
Mills S., Ross R.P., Hill C., Fitzgerald G.F., Stanton C. (2011): Milk intelligence: Mining milk for bioactive substances associated with human health. International Dairy Journal, 21, 377-401 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2010.12.011
Nagao Koji, Yanagita Teruyoshi (2010): Medium-chain fatty acids: Functional lipids for the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Pharmacological Research, 61, 208-212 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2009.11.007
Nalecz-Tarwacka T., Grodzki H., Kuczynska B. (2008): Usefulness of linseeds for the modification of fat fraction components in cow milk. Medycyna Weterynaryjna, 64, 85–87.
Nudda A., Battacone G., Atzori A. S., Dimauro C., Rassu S. P. G., Nicolussi P., Bonelli P., Pulina G. (2013): Effect of extruded linseed supplementation on blood metabolic profile and milk performance of Saanen goats. animal, 7, 1464-1471 https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731113000931
Plozza Tim, Craige Trenerry V., Caridi Domenico (2012): The simultaneous determination of vitamins A, E and β-carotene in bovine milk by high performance liquid chromatography–ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC–MSn). Food Chemistry, 134, 559-563 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.121
Precht D. (): Cholesterol content in European bovine milk fats. Nahrung/Food, 45, 2-8 https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-3803(20010101)45:1<2::AID-FOOD2>3.0.CO;2-5
Puppel K., Nalecz-Tarwacka T., Kuczynska B., Golebiewski M., Kordyasz M. (2013): Effect of different fat supplements on the antioxidant capacity of cow’s milk. Archiv Tierzucht, 56, 178–190.
Rafalowski W., Park C.S. (1982): Whole Sunflower Seed as a Fat Supplement for Lactating Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 65, 1484-1492 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(82)82372-2
Roy A., Ferlay A., Shingfield K. J., Chilliard Y. (2006): Examination of the persistency of milk fatty acid composition responses to plant oils in cows given different basal diets, with particular emphasis on trans-C18:1 fatty acids and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid. Animal Science, 82, - https://doi.org/10.1079/ASC200658
Sauvant D., Perez J.M., Tran G. (eds) (2004): Tables of composition and nutritional value of feed materials: pigs, poultry, cattle, sheep, goats, rabbits, horses and fish. INRA Editions, Paris, France. (in French)
Shingfield K.J., Chilliard Y., Toivonen V., Kairenius P., Givens D.I. (2008): Trans fatty acids and bioactive lipids in ruminant milk. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 606, 3–65.
Strzalkowska N., Jozwik A., Bagnicka E., Krzyzewski J., Cooper R.G., Horbanczuk J.O. (2010): Factors affecting the cholesterol content of milk of cows fed conserved feeds in a TMR system throughout the year. Mljekarstvo, 60, 273–279.
Sukhija Pritam S., Palmquist D. L. (1988): Rapid method for determination of total fatty acid content and composition of feedstuffs and feces. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 36, 1202-1206 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00084a019
Tibbo M., Jibril Y., Woldemeskel M., Dawo F., Aragaw K., Rege J. E. O. (2008): Serum enzymes levels and influencing factors in three indigenous Ethiopian goat breeds. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 40, 657-666 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-008-9145-2
Venturoso R.C., de Almeida K.E., Rodrigues A.M., Damin M.R., de Oliveira M.N. (2007): Determination of the physical-chemical composition of dairy products: exploratory study to compare the results obtained by classic methodology and by ultra-sound. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 43, 607–613.
Viturro Enrique, Koenning Matthias, Kroemer Angelika, Schlamberger Gregor, Wiedemann Steffi, Kaske Martin, Meyer Heinrich H.D. (2009): Cholesterol synthesis in the lactating cow: Induced expression of candidate genes. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 115, 62-67 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2009.02.011
Vlaeminck B., Fievez V., Cabrita A.R.J., Fonseca A.J.M., Dewhurst R.J. (2006): Factors affecting odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in milk: A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 131, 389-417 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.06.017
Wang Ye, Jacome-Sosa M. Miriam, Proctor Spencer D. (2012): The role of ruminant trans fat as a potential nutraceutical in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Food Research International, 46, 460-468 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.08.019