Effects of caponization on growth, carcass, and meat characteristics and the mRNA expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in roosters of a Chinese indigenous breed

https://doi.org/10.17221/8279-CJASCitation:Guo X., Nan H., Shi D., Zhou J., Wan Y., Zhou B., Geng Z., Chen X., Jiang R. (2015): Effects of caponization on growth, carcass, and meat characteristics and the mRNA expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in roosters of a Chinese indigenous breed. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 60: 327-333.
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The effects of caponization on growth, body measurements, carcass traits, meat quality, and the mRNA expression of three genes related to lipid metabolism in Guang-xi Yellow roosters were evaluated. Thirty roosters (25 days) of similar weight were randomly divided equally into the experimental (capons, n = 15) and control (intact males, n = 15) groups. Caponization was conducted at 28 days of age, and birds were slaughtered at 140 days of age. Capons were significantly heavier (P < 0.05) than intact males and also had longer keel length and chest depth (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the percentage of eviscerated weight with giblet and eviscerated weight between the two groups. However, caponization increased breast muscle yield and decreased leg muscle yield (P < 0.05). The capons exhibited higher lightness values for thigh meat and lower redness values for both breast and thigh meat. Moreover, caponization up-regulated the fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA level in the liver, indicating enhanced hepatic lipogenesis, and also up-regulated the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) mRNA levels in abdominal adipose tissue, which indicates increased lipid deposition and adipocyte differentiation. Therefore, caponization is associated with heavier body weight, higher breast meat yield, and higher abdominal fat percentage in Guang-xi Yellow roosters; the higher abdominal fat percentage may be associated with the increase in the mRNA expression of FAS, LPL, and PPARγ.
References:
Bonnet M., Leroux C., Faulconnier Y., Hocquette J.F., Bocquier F., Martin P., Chilliard Y. (2000): Lipoprotein lipase activity and mRNA are up-regulated by refeeding in adipose tissue and cardiac muscle of sheep. Journal of Nutrition, 130, 749–756.
 
CASON J. A., FLETCHER D. L., BURKE W. H. (1988): Research Note: Effects of Caponization on Broiler Growth. Poultry Science, 67, 979-981 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0670979
 
CHAMBERS J. R., FORTIN A. (1984): Live Body and Carcass Measurements as Predictors of Chemical Composition of Carcasses of Male Broiler Chickens. Poultry Science, 63, 2187-2196 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0632187
 
Chen K.L., Wu C.P., Hong Y.M. (2000): Meat quality and carcass traits of capon in comparison with intact male and female Taiwan Country chicken. Journal of the Chinese Society of Animal Science, 29, 77–88.
 
Chen K. L., Chi W. T., Chiou P. W. S. (2005): Caponization and testosterone implantation effects on blood lipid and lipoprotein profile in male chickens. Poultry Science, 84, 547-552 https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/84.4.547
 
Chen K. L., Chi W. T., Chu C., Chen R. S., Chiou P. W. S. (2007): Effect of Caponization and Testosterone Implantation on Hepatic Lipids and Lipogenic Enzymes in Male Chickens. Poultry Science, 86, 1754-1759 https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/86.8.1754
 
Chen Shih Yi, Li Tsung Yu, Tsai Chih Heng, Lo Dan Yuan, Chen Kuo Lung (2014): Gender, caponization and exogenous estrogen effects on lipids, bone and blood characteristics in Taiwan country chickens. Animal Science Journal, 85, 305-312 https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12147
 
Chirala Subrahmanyam S., Wakil Salih J. (2004): Structure and function of animal fatty acid synthase. Lipids, 39, 1045-1053 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-004-1329-9
 
Fan Yue Yuan, Zan Lin Sen, Fu Chang Zhen, Tian Wan Qiang, Wang Hong Bao, Liu Yan Yan, Xin Ya Ping (2011): Three novel SNPs in the coding region of PPARγ gene and their associations with meat quality traits in cattle. Molecular Biology Reports, 38, 131-137 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-010-0086-2
 
Hermier D. (1997): Lipoprotein metabolism and fattening in poultry. Journal of Nutrition, 127, 805–808.
 
Johnson A. S., Asmundson V. S. (1957): Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting Size of Body and Body Parts of Turkeys: 2. The Relation of Body Weight and Certain Body Measurements to Pectoral and Tibial Muscle Weights. Poultry Science, 36, 959-966 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0360959
 
Leveille G.A. (1966): Glycogen metabolism in meal-fed rats and chicks and the time sequence of lipogenic and enzymatic adaptive changes. Journal of Nutrition, 90, 449–460.
 
Lin Cheng Yung, Hsu Jenn Chung (2002): Effects of Surgical Caponization on Growth Performance, Fiber Diameter and Some Physical Properties of Muscles in Taiwan Country Chicken Cockerels. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 15, 401-405 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2002.401
 
Lin Cheng-Yung, Hsu Jenn-Chung (2003): Influence of Caponization on the Carcass Characteristics in Taiwan Country Chicken Cockerels. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 16, 575-580 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2003.575
 
Livak Kenneth J., Schmittgen Thomas D. (2001): Analysis of Relative Gene Expression Data Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR and the 2−ΔΔCT Method. Methods, 25, 402-408 https://doi.org/10.1006/meth.2001.1262
 
Miguel J. A., Ciria J., Asenjo B., Calvo J. L. (2008): Effect of caponisation on growth and on carcass and meat characteristics in Castellana Negra native Spanish chickens. animal, 2, - https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731107001127
 
Ojedapo L.O., Amao S.R., Ameen S.A., Adedeji T.A., Ogundipe R.I., Ige A.O. (2012): Prediction of Body Weight and other Linear Body Measurement of Two Commercial Layer Strain Chickens. Asian Journal of Animal Sciences, 6, 13-22 https://doi.org/10.3923/ajas.2012.13.22
 
Sarsenbek A., Wang T., Zhao J. K., Jiang W. (): Comparison of carcass yields and meat quality between Baicheng-You chickens and Arbor Acres broilers. Poultry Science, 92, 2776-2782 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2012-02841
 
Schoonjans Kristina, Staels Bart, Auwerx Johan (1996): The peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) and their effects on lipid metabolism and adipocyte differentiation. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Lipids and Lipid Metabolism, 1302, 93-109 https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-2760(96)00066-5
 
Shao Yonggang, Wu Changxin, Li Junying, Zhao Chunjiang (2009): The Effects of Different Caponization Age on Growth Performance and Blood Parameters in Male Tibetan Chicken. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 4, 228-236 https://doi.org/10.3923/ajava.2009.228.236
 
Sinanoglou V.J., Mantis F., Miniadis-Meimaroglou S., Symeon G.K., Bizelis I.A. (2011): Effects of caponisation on lipid and fatty acid composition of intramuscular and abdominal fat of medium-growth broilers. British Poultry Science, 52, 310-317 https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2011.581269
 
Sirri F., Bianchi M., Petracci M., Meluzzi A. (): Influence of partial and complete caponization on chicken meat quality. Poultry Science, 88, 1466-1473 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2008-00405
 
Smith Stuart, Witkowski Andrzej, Joshi Anil K (2003): Structural and functional organization of the animal fatty acid synthase. Progress in Lipid Research, 42, 289-317 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0163-7827(02)00067-X
 
Symeon G. K., Mantis F., Bizelis I., Kominakis A., Rogdakis E. (): Effects of caponization on growth performance, carcass composition, and meat quality of medium growth broilers. Poultry Science, 89, 1481-1489 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2009-00411
 
Symeon G. K., Mantis F., Bizelis I., Kominakis A., Rogdakis E. (2012): Effects of caponization on growth performance, carcass composition and meat quality of males of a layer line. animal, 6, 2023-2030 https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731112001024
 
Talmud Philippa J., Stephens Jeffrey W. (2004): Lipoprotein lipase gene variants and the effect of environmental factors on cardiovascular disease risk. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 6, 1-7 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-1326.2004.00304.x
 
Tor Marc, Estany Joan, Villalba Daniel, Molina Ester, Cubil� Dolors (2002): Comparison of carcass composition by parts and tissues between cocks and capons. Animal Research, 51, 421-431 https://doi.org/10.1051/animres:2002035
 
Wang Y., Mu Y., Li H., Ding N., Wang Q., Wang Y., Wang S., Wang N. (2008): Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-  Gene: A Key Regulator of Adipocyte Differentiation in Chickens. Poultry Science, 87, 226-232 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2007-00329
 
Zhao Jiong, Sun Xue-Bing, Ye Fei, Tian Wei-Xi (2011): Suppression of fatty acid synthase, differentiation and lipid accumulation in adipocytes by curcumin. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 351, 19-28 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-010-0707-z
 
Bonnet M., Leroux C., Faulconnier Y., Hocquette J.F., Bocquier F., Martin P., Chilliard Y. (2000): Lipoprotein lipase activity and mRNA are up-regulated by refeeding in adipose tissue and cardiac muscle of sheep. Journal of Nutrition, 130, 749–756.
 
CASON J. A., FLETCHER D. L., BURKE W. H. (1988): Research Note: Effects of Caponization on Broiler Growth. Poultry Science, 67, 979-981 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0670979
 
CHAMBERS J. R., FORTIN A. (1984): Live Body and Carcass Measurements as Predictors of Chemical Composition of Carcasses of Male Broiler Chickens. Poultry Science, 63, 2187-2196 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0632187
 
Chen K.L., Wu C.P., Hong Y.M. (2000): Meat quality and carcass traits of capon in comparison with intact male and female Taiwan Country chicken. Journal of the Chinese Society of Animal Science, 29, 77–88.
 
Chen K. L., Chi W. T., Chiou P. W. S. (2005): Caponization and testosterone implantation effects on blood lipid and lipoprotein profile in male chickens. Poultry Science, 84, 547-552 https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/84.4.547
 
Chen K. L., Chi W. T., Chu C., Chen R. S., Chiou P. W. S. (2007): Effect of Caponization and Testosterone Implantation on Hepatic Lipids and Lipogenic Enzymes in Male Chickens. Poultry Science, 86, 1754-1759 https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/86.8.1754
 
Chen Shih Yi, Li Tsung Yu, Tsai Chih Heng, Lo Dan Yuan, Chen Kuo Lung (2014): Gender, caponization and exogenous estrogen effects on lipids, bone and blood characteristics in Taiwan country chickens. Animal Science Journal, 85, 305-312 https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12147
 
Chirala Subrahmanyam S., Wakil Salih J. (2004): Structure and function of animal fatty acid synthase. Lipids, 39, 1045-1053 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-004-1329-9
 
Fan Yue Yuan, Zan Lin Sen, Fu Chang Zhen, Tian Wan Qiang, Wang Hong Bao, Liu Yan Yan, Xin Ya Ping (2011): Three novel SNPs in the coding region of PPARγ gene and their associations with meat quality traits in cattle. Molecular Biology Reports, 38, 131-137 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-010-0086-2
 
Hermier D. (1997): Lipoprotein metabolism and fattening in poultry. Journal of Nutrition, 127, 805–808.
 
Johnson A. S., Asmundson V. S. (1957): Genetic and Environmental Factors Affecting Size of Body and Body Parts of Turkeys: 2. The Relation of Body Weight and Certain Body Measurements to Pectoral and Tibial Muscle Weights. Poultry Science, 36, 959-966 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0360959
 
Leveille G.A. (1966): Glycogen metabolism in meal-fed rats and chicks and the time sequence of lipogenic and enzymatic adaptive changes. Journal of Nutrition, 90, 449–460.
 
Lin Cheng Yung, Hsu Jenn Chung (2002): Effects of Surgical Caponization on Growth Performance, Fiber Diameter and Some Physical Properties of Muscles in Taiwan Country Chicken Cockerels. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 15, 401-405 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2002.401
 
Lin Cheng-Yung, Hsu Jenn-Chung (2003): Influence of Caponization on the Carcass Characteristics in Taiwan Country Chicken Cockerels. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 16, 575-580 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2003.575
 
Livak Kenneth J., Schmittgen Thomas D. (2001): Analysis of Relative Gene Expression Data Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR and the 2−ΔΔCT Method. Methods, 25, 402-408 https://doi.org/10.1006/meth.2001.1262
 
Miguel J. A., Ciria J., Asenjo B., Calvo J. L. (2008): Effect of caponisation on growth and on carcass and meat characteristics in Castellana Negra native Spanish chickens. animal, 2, - https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731107001127
 
Ojedapo L.O., Amao S.R., Ameen S.A., Adedeji T.A., Ogundipe R.I., Ige A.O. (2012): Prediction of Body Weight and other Linear Body Measurement of Two Commercial Layer Strain Chickens. Asian Journal of Animal Sciences, 6, 13-22 https://doi.org/10.3923/ajas.2012.13.22
 
Sarsenbek A., Wang T., Zhao J. K., Jiang W. (): Comparison of carcass yields and meat quality between Baicheng-You chickens and Arbor Acres broilers. Poultry Science, 92, 2776-2782 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2012-02841
 
Schoonjans Kristina, Staels Bart, Auwerx Johan (1996): The peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) and their effects on lipid metabolism and adipocyte differentiation. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Lipids and Lipid Metabolism, 1302, 93-109 https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-2760(96)00066-5
 
Shao Yonggang, Wu Changxin, Li Junying, Zhao Chunjiang (2009): The Effects of Different Caponization Age on Growth Performance and Blood Parameters in Male Tibetan Chicken. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 4, 228-236 https://doi.org/10.3923/ajava.2009.228.236
 
Sinanoglou V.J., Mantis F., Miniadis-Meimaroglou S., Symeon G.K., Bizelis I.A. (2011): Effects of caponisation on lipid and fatty acid composition of intramuscular and abdominal fat of medium-growth broilers. British Poultry Science, 52, 310-317 https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2011.581269
 
Sirri F., Bianchi M., Petracci M., Meluzzi A. (): Influence of partial and complete caponization on chicken meat quality. Poultry Science, 88, 1466-1473 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2008-00405
 
Smith Stuart, Witkowski Andrzej, Joshi Anil K (2003): Structural and functional organization of the animal fatty acid synthase. Progress in Lipid Research, 42, 289-317 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0163-7827(02)00067-X
 
Symeon G. K., Mantis F., Bizelis I., Kominakis A., Rogdakis E. (): Effects of caponization on growth performance, carcass composition, and meat quality of medium growth broilers. Poultry Science, 89, 1481-1489 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2009-00411
 
Symeon G. K., Mantis F., Bizelis I., Kominakis A., Rogdakis E. (2012): Effects of caponization on growth performance, carcass composition and meat quality of males of a layer line. animal, 6, 2023-2030 https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731112001024
 
Talmud Philippa J., Stephens Jeffrey W. (2004): Lipoprotein lipase gene variants and the effect of environmental factors on cardiovascular disease risk. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 6, 1-7 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-1326.2004.00304.x
 
Tor Marc, Estany Joan, Villalba Daniel, Molina Ester, Cubil� Dolors (2002): Comparison of carcass composition by parts and tissues between cocks and capons. Animal Research, 51, 421-431 https://doi.org/10.1051/animres:2002035
 
Wang Y., Mu Y., Li H., Ding N., Wang Q., Wang Y., Wang S., Wang N. (2008): Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-  Gene: A Key Regulator of Adipocyte Differentiation in Chickens. Poultry Science, 87, 226-232 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2007-00329
 
Zhao Jiong, Sun Xue-Bing, Ye Fei, Tian Wei-Xi (2011): Suppression of fatty acid synthase, differentiation and lipid accumulation in adipocytes by curcumin. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 351, 19-28 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11010-010-0707-z
 
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