Effects of supplementing vitamin E on in vitro rumen gas production, volatile fatty acid production, dry matter disappearance rate, and utilizable crude protein
C. Wei, S.X. Lin, J.L. Wu, G.Y. Zhao, T.T. Zhang, W.S. Zhenghttps://doi.org/10.17221/8402-CJASCitation:Wei C., Lin S.X., Wu J.L., Zhao G.Y., Zhang T.T., Zheng W.S. (2015): Effects of supplementing vitamin E on in vitro rumen gas production, volatile fatty acid production, dry matter disappearance rate, and utilizable crude protein. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 60: 335-341.
Two in vitro trials were carried out to study the effects of supplementing vitamin E (VE) on rumen fermentation. In Trial I, four levels of VE product (purity 50%), i.e. 0, 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg dry matter (DM) of feed (equivalent to 0, 7.5, 15, 30 IU VE/kg DM) were supplemented to a typical feed mixture, respectively, as experimental treatments. The gas test technique of Menke et al. (1979) was used to measure gas and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production. In Trial II, the in vitro incubation technique of Zhao and Lebzien (2000) was used to determine DM disappearance rate and utilizable crude protein (uCP). Four levels of VE, i.e. 0, 7.5, 15, 30 IU/kg DM were supplemented to the same feed mixture as in Trial I, respectively, as experimental treatments. The results showed that supplementing VE increased total gas production (P < 0.01) and tended to increase methane (CH4) production (P = 0.087). Supplementing VE also increased total VFA (P < 0.05) and propionate (P < 0.05), tended to increase acetate production (P = 0.084), and significantly increased DM disappearance rate (P < 0.05) and uCP (P < 0.01). It was concluded that supplementing VE at 30 IU/kg DM under the conditions of present trials with 11.1 IU/kg DM in the feed mixture improved in vitro rumen fermentation of feed mixture. Further research is necessary to confirm the effects of supplementing VE using in vivo trials.Keywords:vitamin E; rumen fermentation; in vitroReferences:
AOAC (1999): Official Methods of Analysis. 16th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, USA.Bloomberg B. D., Hilton G. G., Hanger K. G., Richards C. J., Morgan J. B., VanOverbeke D. L. (): Effects of vitamin E on color stability and palatability of strip loin steaks from cattle fed distillers grains. Journal of Animal Science, 89, 3769-3782 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2011-3843Burken D. B., Hicks R. B., VanOverbeke D. L., Hilton G. G., Wahrmund J. L., Holland B. P., Krehbiel C. R., Camfield P. K., Richards C. J. (): Vitamin E supplementation in beef finishing diets containing 35% wet distillers grains with solubles: Feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. Journal of Animal Science, 90, 1349-1355 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2011-3833Burton Graham W., Traber Maret G. (1990): Vitamin E: Antioxidant Activity, Biokinetics, and Bioavailability. Annual Review of Nutrition, 10, 357-382 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nu.10.070190.002041Chikunya S., Demirel G., Enser M., Wood J. D., Wilkinson R. G., Sinclair L. A. (2004): Biohydrogenation of dietary n-3 PUFA and stability of ingested vitamin E in the rumen, and their effects on microbial activity in sheep. British Journal of Nutrition, 91, 539- https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN20031078Doane P.H., Schofield P., Pell A.N. (1997): Neutral detergent fiber disappearance and gas and volatile fatty acid production during the in vitro fermentation of six forages. Journal of Animal Science, 75, 3342–3352.Getachew G, Robinson P.H, DePeters E.J, Taylor S.J (2004): Relationships between chemical composition, dry matter degradation and in vitro gas production of several ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 111, 57-71 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(03)00217-7Hino Tsuneo, Andoh Naotomo, Ohgi Hisao (1993): Effects of β-Carotene and α-Tocopherol on Rumen Bacteria in the Utilization of Long-Chain Fatty Acids and Cellulose. Journal of Dairy Science, 76, 600-605 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77380-4Hou Juncai, Wang Fang, Wang Yutang, Liu Fei (2013): Effects of vitamin E on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acids and accumulation of intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation in vitro. Small Ruminant Research, 111, 63-70 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2012.09.015Kamra D.N. (2005): Rumen microbial ecosystem. Current Science, 89, 124–135.Menke K. H., Raab L., Salewski A., Steingass H., Fritz D., Schneider W. (1979): The estimation of the digestibility and metabolizable energy content of ruminant feedingstuffs from the gas production when they are incubated with rumen liquor in vitro. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 93, 217- https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600086305NAZIROGLU M., GULER T., YUCE A. (2002): Effect of Vitamin E on Ruminal Fermentation In Vitro. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A, 49, 251-255 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0442.2002.00418.xO’Grady M.N., Monahan F.J., Fallon R.J., Allen P. (2001): Effects of dietary supplementation with vitamin E and organic selenium on the oxidative stability of beef. Journal of Animal Science, 79, 2827–2834.Ørskov E. R., McDonald I. (1979): The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 92, 499- https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600063048Politis Ioannis, Bizelis Iosif, Tsiaras Anastasios, Baldi Antonella (1999): Effect of vitamin E supplementation on neutrophil function, milk composition and plasmin activity in dairy cows in a commercial herd. Journal of Dairy Research, 71, 273-278 https://doi.org/10.1017/S002202990400010XStewart C.S., Bryant M.P. (1988): The rumen bacteria. In: Hobson P.N. (ed.): The Rumen Microbial Ecosystem. Elsevier Science Publishers, New York, USA, 15–26.Tagliapietra Franco, Cattani Mirko, Hansen Hanne H., Bittante Giovanni, Schiavon Stefano (2013): High doses of vitamin E and vitamin C influence in vitro rumen microbial activity. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 183, 210-214 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2013.05.010Van Soest P.J., Robertson J.B., Lewis B.A. (1991): Methods for Dietary Fiber, Neutral Detergent Fiber, and Nonstarch Polysaccharides in Relation to Animal Nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583-3597 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2Zhao G.Y., Lebzien P. (2000): Development of an in vitro incubation technique for the estimation of the utilizable crude protein (uCP) in feeds for cattle. Archives of Animal Nutrition, 53, 293–302.