Relationships between growth and body condition development during the rearing period and performance in the first three lactations in Holstein cows

https://doi.org/10.17221/8460-CJASCitation:Vacek M., Krpálková L., Syrůček J., Štípková M., Janecká M. (2015): Relationships between growth and body condition development during the rearing period and performance in the first three lactations in Holstein cows. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 60: 417-425.
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The relationship between growth and development of body condition during the rearing of replacement heifers and their subsequent performance in the production period of Holstein cows in the Czech Republic was studied. The data set used in this study covered 733 Holstein heifers born on one farm during the years 2004–2009. The evaluated effects considered were body weight (BW), average daily gain of live weight (ADG), and body condition score (BCS) of heifers. The results demonstrated the desirable effect of the higher achieved ADG in the period before sexual maturity on the lower age at first calving (AFC), the positive influence on milk yield in the first lactation, and the negative relationship to the conception rate of heifers before first calving. Similar effects were also found for growth in the period of 9–12 months of age. In heifers with a greater growth rate before puberty there was not a significant risk of excessive BCS during the breeding period. Heifers with the highest BCS (3.5 points (p.) and more) at 14 months of age had significantly the lowest milk yield in the first and second lactation compared to heifers with medium (3.5 p.) and low (3.25 p. or less) BCS. Over-conditioned heifers exhibited higher milk protein content in the first and second lactation. No effects on the third lactation were observed.
References:
Abeni F., Calamari L., Stefanini L., Pirlo G. (2000): Effects of Daily Gain in Pre- and Postpubertal Replacement Dairy Heifers on Body Condition Score, Body Size, Metabolic Profile, and Future Milk Production. Journal of Dairy Science, 83, 1468-1478 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)75019-3
 
Bar-Peled U., Robinzon B., Maltz E., Tagari H., Folman Y., Bruckental I., Voet H., Gacitua H., Lehrer A.R. (1997): Increased Weight Gain and Effects on Production Parameters of Holstein Heifer Calves That Were Allowed to Suckle from Birth to Six Weeks of Age. Journal of Dairy Science, 80, 2523-2528 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)76205-2
 
Collard B.L., Boettcher P.J., Dekkers J.C.M., Petitclerc D., Schaeffer L.R. (2000): Relationships Between Energy Balance and Health Traits of Dairy Cattle in Early Lactation. Journal of Dairy Science, 83, 2683-2690 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)75162-9
 
Daniels K.M. (2010): Dairy Heifer Mammary Development. In: Proc. 19th Annual Tri-State Dairy Nutrition Conference, Fort Wayne, USA, 69–76.
 
Edmonson A.J., Lean I.J., Weaver L.D., Farver T., Webster G. (1989): A Body Condition Scoring Chart for Holstein Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 72, 68-78 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(89)79081-0
 
Ettema J.F., Santos J.E.P. (2004): Impact of Age at Calving on Lactation, Reproduction, Health, and Income in First-Parity Holsteins on Commercial Farms. Journal of Dairy Science, 87, 2730-2742 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73400-1
 
Foldager J., Krohn C.C. (1994): Heifer calves reared on very high or normal levels of whole milk from birth to 6–8 weeks of age and their subsequent milk production. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 7, 1669–1678.
 
Froidmont E., Mayeres P., Picron P., Turlot A., Planchon V., Stilmant D. (2013): Association between age at first calving, year and season of first calving and milk production in Holstein cows. animal, 7, 665-672 https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731112001577
 
Gergovska Z., Mitev Y., Angelova T., Yordanova D., Miteva T. (2011): Effect of changes in body condition score on the milk yield of Holstein-Friesian and Brown Swiss cows. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 17, 837–845.
 
Heikkilä A.-M., Nousiainen J.I., Jauhiainen L. (2008): Optimal Replacement Policy and Economic Value of Dairy Cows with Diverse Health Status and Production Capacity. Journal of Dairy Science, 91, 2342-2352 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0736
 
Gabler M.T., Heinrichs A.J. (2003): Dietary Protein to Metabolizable Energy Ratios on Feed Efficiency and Structural Growth of Prepubertal Holstein Heifers. Journal of Dairy Science, 86, 268-274 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73605-4
 
Hoffman P.C., Brehm N.M., Price S.G., Prill-Adams A. (1996): Effect of Accelerated Postpubertal Growth and Early Calving on Lactation Performance of Primiparous Holstein Heifers. Journal of Dairy Science, 79, 2024-2031 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(96)76575-X
 
Hohenboken William D., Foldager John, Jensen Just, Madsen Per, Andersen Bernt Bech (1995): Breed and Nutritional Effects and Interactions on Energy Intake, Production and Efficiency of Nutrient Utilization in Young Bulls, Heifers and Lactating Cows. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Science, 45, 92-98 https://doi.org/10.1080/09064709509415836
 
KADOKAWA Hiroya, MARTIN Graeme B (2006): A New Perspective on Management of Reproduction in Dairy Cows: the Need for Detailed Metabolic Information, an Improved Selection Index and Extended Lactation. Journal of Reproduction and Development, 52, 161-168 https://doi.org/10.1262/jrd.17088
 
Krpalkova L., Cabrera V., Kvapilik J., Burdych J., Crump P. (2014a): Association between age at first calving, rearing average daily weight gain, and herd milk yield level on dairy herd production, reproduction, and profitability. Journal of Dairy Science, 97, 6573–6582.
 
Krpalkova L., Cabrera V., Vacek M., Stipkova M., Stadnik L., Crump P. (2014b): Impact of prepubertal and postpubertal growth and age at first calving on production and reproduction traits during the first 3 lactations in Holstein dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science, 97, 3017–3027.
 
Lammers B.P., Heinrichs A.J. (2000): The Response of Altering the Ratio of Dietary Protein to Energy on Growth, Feed Efficiency, and Mammary Developmentin Rapidly Growing Prepubertal Heifers. Journal of Dairy Science, 83, 977-983 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)74962-9
 
Le Cozler Y., Lollivier V., Lacasse P., Disenhaus C. (2008): Rearing strategy and optimizing first-calving targets in dairy heifers: a review. animal, 2, - https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731108002498
 
Macdonald K.A., Penno J.W., Bryant A.M., Roche J.R. (2005): Effect of Feeding Level Pre- and Post-Puberty and Body Weight at First Calving on Growth, Milk Production, and Fertility in Grazing Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 88, 3363-3375 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)73020-4
 
Raguz N., Jovanovac S., Gantner V. (2011): Analysis of factors affecting the length of productive life in Croatian dairy cows. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 17, 232–240.
 
SAKAGUCHI Minoru, SUZUKI Takahiro, SASAMOTO Yoshihiko, TAKAHASHI Yoshiyuki, NISHIURA Akiko, AOKI Mari (2005): Effects of first breeding age on the production and reproduction of Holstein heifers up to the third lactation. Animal Science Journal, 76, 419-426 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-0929.2005.00285.x
 
Shamay A., Werner D., Moallem U., Barash H., Bruckental I. (2005): Effect of Nursing Management and Skeletal Size at Weaning on Puberty, Skeletal Growth Rate, and Milk Production During First Lactation of Dairy Heifers. Journal of Dairy Science, 88, 1460-1469 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72814-9
 
Stadnik L., Louda F. (1999): The effect of genetic parameters of sire in France on the performance and reproduction of daughters imported to the Czech Republic and calving here. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 44, 433–439.
 
Stadnik L., Louda F., Jezkova A. (2002): The effect of selected factors at insemination on reproduction of Holstein cows. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 47, 169–175.
 
Stevenson J.L., Rodrigues J.A., Braga F.A., Bitente S., Dalton J.C., Santos J.E.P., Chebel R.C. (2008): Effect of Breeding Protocols and Reproductive Tract Score on Reproductive Performance of Dairy Heifers and Economic Outcome of Breeding Programs. Journal of Dairy Science, 91, 3424-3438 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0804
 
Szencziová Iveta, Strapák Peter, Stádník Ludĕk, Ducháček Jaromír, Beran Jan (2013): Relationship of Udder and Teat Morphology to Milking Characteristics and Udder Health Determined by Ultrasonographic Examinations in Dairy Cows / Związek Między Morfologią Wymienia I Strzyków A Cechami Doju I Zdrowotnością Wymienia W Badaniach Usg Krów Mlecznych. Annals of Animal Science, 13, - https://doi.org/10.2478/aoas-2013-0053
 
Szewczuk M., Bajurna M., Zych S., Kruszynski W. (2013): Association of insulin-like growth factor I gene polymorphisms (IGF1/TasI and IGF1/SnaBI) with the growth and subsequent milk yield of Polish Holstein-Friesian heifers. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 58, 404–411.
 
Tozer P.R., Heinrichs A.J. (2001): What Affects the Costs of Raising Replacement Dairy Heifers: A Multiple-Component Analysis. Journal of Dairy Science, 84, 1836-1844 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)74623-1
 
Vacek M., Stadnik L., Stipkova M. (2007): Relationships between the incidence of health disorders and the reproduction traits of Holstein cows in the Czech Republic. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 52, 227–235.
 
Van Amburgh M.E., Galton D.M., Bauman D.E., Everett R.W., Fox D.G., Chase L.E., Erb H.N. (1998): Effects of Three Prepubertal Body Growth Rates on Performance of Holstein Heifers During First Lactation. Journal of Dairy Science, 81, 527-538 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75604-8
 
Velik M., Gangnat I., Kitzer R., Finotti E., Steinwidder A. (2013): Fattening heifers on continuous pasture in mountainous regions – implications for productivity and meat quality. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 58, 360–368.
 
Verbeke G., Molenberghs G. (2000): Linear Mixed Models for Longitudinal Data. Springer-Verlag, New York, USA.
 
Abeni F., Calamari L., Stefanini L., Pirlo G. (2000): Effects of Daily Gain in Pre- and Postpubertal Replacement Dairy Heifers on Body Condition Score, Body Size, Metabolic Profile, and Future Milk Production. Journal of Dairy Science, 83, 1468-1478 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)75019-3
 
Bar-Peled U., Robinzon B., Maltz E., Tagari H., Folman Y., Bruckental I., Voet H., Gacitua H., Lehrer A.R. (1997): Increased Weight Gain and Effects on Production Parameters of Holstein Heifer Calves That Were Allowed to Suckle from Birth to Six Weeks of Age. Journal of Dairy Science, 80, 2523-2528 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)76205-2
 
Collard B.L., Boettcher P.J., Dekkers J.C.M., Petitclerc D., Schaeffer L.R. (2000): Relationships Between Energy Balance and Health Traits of Dairy Cattle in Early Lactation. Journal of Dairy Science, 83, 2683-2690 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)75162-9
 
Daniels K.M. (2010): Dairy Heifer Mammary Development. In: Proc. 19th Annual Tri-State Dairy Nutrition Conference, Fort Wayne, USA, 69–76.
 
Edmonson A.J., Lean I.J., Weaver L.D., Farver T., Webster G. (1989): A Body Condition Scoring Chart for Holstein Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 72, 68-78 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(89)79081-0
 
Ettema J.F., Santos J.E.P. (2004): Impact of Age at Calving on Lactation, Reproduction, Health, and Income in First-Parity Holsteins on Commercial Farms. Journal of Dairy Science, 87, 2730-2742 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73400-1
 
Foldager J., Krohn C.C. (1994): Heifer calves reared on very high or normal levels of whole milk from birth to 6–8 weeks of age and their subsequent milk production. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 7, 1669–1678.
 
Froidmont E., Mayeres P., Picron P., Turlot A., Planchon V., Stilmant D. (2013): Association between age at first calving, year and season of first calving and milk production in Holstein cows. animal, 7, 665-672 https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731112001577
 
Gergovska Z., Mitev Y., Angelova T., Yordanova D., Miteva T. (2011): Effect of changes in body condition score on the milk yield of Holstein-Friesian and Brown Swiss cows. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 17, 837–845.
 
Heikkilä A.-M., Nousiainen J.I., Jauhiainen L. (2008): Optimal Replacement Policy and Economic Value of Dairy Cows with Diverse Health Status and Production Capacity. Journal of Dairy Science, 91, 2342-2352 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0736
 
Gabler M.T., Heinrichs A.J. (2003): Dietary Protein to Metabolizable Energy Ratios on Feed Efficiency and Structural Growth of Prepubertal Holstein Heifers. Journal of Dairy Science, 86, 268-274 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73605-4
 
Hoffman P.C., Brehm N.M., Price S.G., Prill-Adams A. (1996): Effect of Accelerated Postpubertal Growth and Early Calving on Lactation Performance of Primiparous Holstein Heifers. Journal of Dairy Science, 79, 2024-2031 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(96)76575-X
 
Hohenboken William D., Foldager John, Jensen Just, Madsen Per, Andersen Bernt Bech (1995): Breed and Nutritional Effects and Interactions on Energy Intake, Production and Efficiency of Nutrient Utilization in Young Bulls, Heifers and Lactating Cows. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A - Animal Science, 45, 92-98 https://doi.org/10.1080/09064709509415836
 
KADOKAWA Hiroya, MARTIN Graeme B (2006): A New Perspective on Management of Reproduction in Dairy Cows: the Need for Detailed Metabolic Information, an Improved Selection Index and Extended Lactation. Journal of Reproduction and Development, 52, 161-168 https://doi.org/10.1262/jrd.17088
 
Krpalkova L., Cabrera V., Kvapilik J., Burdych J., Crump P. (2014a): Association between age at first calving, rearing average daily weight gain, and herd milk yield level on dairy herd production, reproduction, and profitability. Journal of Dairy Science, 97, 6573–6582.
 
Krpalkova L., Cabrera V., Vacek M., Stipkova M., Stadnik L., Crump P. (2014b): Impact of prepubertal and postpubertal growth and age at first calving on production and reproduction traits during the first 3 lactations in Holstein dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science, 97, 3017–3027.
 
Lammers B.P., Heinrichs A.J. (2000): The Response of Altering the Ratio of Dietary Protein to Energy on Growth, Feed Efficiency, and Mammary Developmentin Rapidly Growing Prepubertal Heifers. Journal of Dairy Science, 83, 977-983 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)74962-9
 
Le Cozler Y., Lollivier V., Lacasse P., Disenhaus C. (2008): Rearing strategy and optimizing first-calving targets in dairy heifers: a review. animal, 2, - https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731108002498
 
Macdonald K.A., Penno J.W., Bryant A.M., Roche J.R. (2005): Effect of Feeding Level Pre- and Post-Puberty and Body Weight at First Calving on Growth, Milk Production, and Fertility in Grazing Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 88, 3363-3375 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)73020-4
 
Raguz N., Jovanovac S., Gantner V. (2011): Analysis of factors affecting the length of productive life in Croatian dairy cows. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 17, 232–240.
 
SAKAGUCHI Minoru, SUZUKI Takahiro, SASAMOTO Yoshihiko, TAKAHASHI Yoshiyuki, NISHIURA Akiko, AOKI Mari (2005): Effects of first breeding age on the production and reproduction of Holstein heifers up to the third lactation. Animal Science Journal, 76, 419-426 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-0929.2005.00285.x
 
Shamay A., Werner D., Moallem U., Barash H., Bruckental I. (2005): Effect of Nursing Management and Skeletal Size at Weaning on Puberty, Skeletal Growth Rate, and Milk Production During First Lactation of Dairy Heifers. Journal of Dairy Science, 88, 1460-1469 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72814-9
 
Stadnik L., Louda F. (1999): The effect of genetic parameters of sire in France on the performance and reproduction of daughters imported to the Czech Republic and calving here. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 44, 433–439.
 
Stadnik L., Louda F., Jezkova A. (2002): The effect of selected factors at insemination on reproduction of Holstein cows. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 47, 169–175.
 
Stevenson J.L., Rodrigues J.A., Braga F.A., Bitente S., Dalton J.C., Santos J.E.P., Chebel R.C. (2008): Effect of Breeding Protocols and Reproductive Tract Score on Reproductive Performance of Dairy Heifers and Economic Outcome of Breeding Programs. Journal of Dairy Science, 91, 3424-3438 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0804
 
Szencziová Iveta, Strapák Peter, Stádník Ludĕk, Ducháček Jaromír, Beran Jan (2013): Relationship of Udder and Teat Morphology to Milking Characteristics and Udder Health Determined by Ultrasonographic Examinations in Dairy Cows / Związek Między Morfologią Wymienia I Strzyków A Cechami Doju I Zdrowotnością Wymienia W Badaniach Usg Krów Mlecznych. Annals of Animal Science, 13, - https://doi.org/10.2478/aoas-2013-0053
 
Szewczuk M., Bajurna M., Zych S., Kruszynski W. (2013): Association of insulin-like growth factor I gene polymorphisms (IGF1/TasI and IGF1/SnaBI) with the growth and subsequent milk yield of Polish Holstein-Friesian heifers. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 58, 404–411.
 
Tozer P.R., Heinrichs A.J. (2001): What Affects the Costs of Raising Replacement Dairy Heifers: A Multiple-Component Analysis. Journal of Dairy Science, 84, 1836-1844 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)74623-1
 
Vacek M., Stadnik L., Stipkova M. (2007): Relationships between the incidence of health disorders and the reproduction traits of Holstein cows in the Czech Republic. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 52, 227–235.
 
Van Amburgh M.E., Galton D.M., Bauman D.E., Everett R.W., Fox D.G., Chase L.E., Erb H.N. (1998): Effects of Three Prepubertal Body Growth Rates on Performance of Holstein Heifers During First Lactation. Journal of Dairy Science, 81, 527-538 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75604-8
 
Velik M., Gangnat I., Kitzer R., Finotti E., Steinwidder A. (2013): Fattening heifers on continuous pasture in mountainous regions – implications for productivity and meat quality. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 58, 360–368.
 
Verbeke G., Molenberghs G. (2000): Linear Mixed Models for Longitudinal Data. Springer-Verlag, New York, USA.
 
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