Impact of brewer’s yeast extract and levamisole in diets with vegetable oils on the growth, chemical composition, and immunological and biochemical blood parameters of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca)
A. Kowalska, Z. Zakęś, A.K. Siwicki, E. Terech-Majewska, B. Jankowska, S. Jarmołowicz, E. Głąbskihttps://doi.org/10.17221/8558-CJASCitation:Kowalska A., Zakęś Z., Siwicki A.K., Terech-Majewska E., Jankowska B., Jarmołowicz S., Głąbski E. (2015): Impact of brewer’s yeast extract and levamisole in diets with vegetable oils on the growth, chemical composition, and immunological and biochemical blood parameters of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca). Czech J. Anim. Sci., 60: 498-508.
The impact of applying NuPro® (40 g/kg feed) and levamisole (300 mg/kg feed) in European pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) diets with vegetable oils on growth, immunological, hematological, and blood chemical parameters was assayed. The fish were fed the feed containing sunflower and linseed oils (48 and 21 g/kg feed) (group VO) or this feed with levamisole (group VOL) or NuPro® (group VON). The fourth group was fed the feed with fish oil added in the amount of 69 g/kg feed (group FO). The pikeperch were reared for 56 days. Feeding the fish feed supplemented with levamisole or NuPro® increased the immunological responses of the phagocytes and lymphocytes, lysozyme activity, and total gamma-globulin levels. The feed supplemented with NuPro® resulted in decreased aspartate and alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity. Vegetable oils in the feed were linked to increased contents of linoleic acid in fish bodies. The quantity of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids was significantly the highest in group FO. The immunological index obtained in group VON indicated that the diet supplemented with brewer’s yeast extract (NuPro®) was the most advantageous when feeding juvenile pikeperch feeds with vegetable oils.Keywords:lipids; fatty acids; immunomodulators; disease resistanceReferences:
AOAC (1975): Official Methods of Analysis. 12th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, USA.Blazer Vicki S. (1992): Nutrition and disease resistance in fish. Annual Review of Fish Diseases, 2, 309-323 https://doi.org/10.1016/0959-8030(92)90068-9Folch H., Less M., Stanley H.A. (1957): A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 226, 497–499.Gopalakannan Ayyaru, Arul Venkatesan (2006): Immunomodulatory effects of dietary intake of chitin, chitosan and levamisole on the immune system of Cyprinus carpio and control of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in ponds. Aquaculture, 255, 179-187 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.01.012JARMOŁOWICZ S., ZAKĘŚ Z., SIWICKI A., KOWALSKA A., HOPKO M., GŁĄBSKI E., DEMSKA-ZAKĘŚ K., PARTYKA K. (2012): Effects of brewer’s yeast extract on growth performance and health of juvenile pikeperch Sander lucioperca (L.). Aquaculture Nutrition, 18, 457-464 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2095.2011.00915.xJarmołowicz Sylwia, Zakęś Zdzisław, Siwicki Andrzej, Terech-Majewska Elżbieta, Kowalska Agata, Partyka Konrad, Hopko Marek (2013): Immunomodulatory effect of dietary brewer’s yeast extract in Sander lucioperca juveniles against the challenge of Aeromonas salmonicida. Aquaculture International, 21, 939-945 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-012-9546-0Kiron Viswanath, Fukuda Hideo, Takeuchi Toshio, Watanabe Takeshi (1995): Essential fatty acid nutrition and defence mechanisms in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology, 111, 361-367 https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-9629(95)00042-6Kowalska A., Zakes Z., Jankowska B., Siwicki A. (2010a): Impact of diets with vegetable oils on the growth, histological structure of internal organs, biochemical blood parameters, and proximate composition of pikeperch Sander lucioperca (L.). Aquaculture, 301, 69–77.Kowalska A., Zakes Z., Jankowska B., Siwicki A. (2010b): Substituting vegetable oil for fish oil in pikeperch diets: the impact on growth, internal organ histology, blood biochemical parameters, and proximate composition. Aquaculture Nutrition, 17: e148–e163. Available from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com (accessed Feb 2, 2010).Kowalska A., Zakes Z., Jankowska B., Demska-Zakes K. (2011): Effect of different dietary lipid levels on growth performance, slaughter yield, chemical composition, and histology of liver and intestine of pikeperch, Sander lucioperca. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 56, 136–149.Kowalska Agata, Zakęś Zdzisław, Siwicki Andrzej Krzysztof, Jankowska Barbara, Jarmołowicz Sylwia, Demska-Zakęś Krystyna (2012): Impact of diets with different proportions of linseed and sunflower oils on the growth, liver histology, immunological and chemical blood parameters, and proximate composition of pikeperch Sander lucioperca (L.). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 38, 375-388 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10695-011-9514-zLi Peng, Gatlin Delbert M. (2006): Nucleotide nutrition in fish: Current knowledge and future applications. Aquaculture, 251, 141-152 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.01.009Li G., Guo Y., Zhao D., Qian P., Sun J., Xiao C., Liang L., Wang H. (2006a): Effects of levamisole on the immune response and disease resistance of Clarias fuscus. Aquaculture, 253, 212–217.Li P., Wang X., Gatlin D.M. (2006b): Evaluation of levamisole as a feed additive for growth and health management of hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops × Morone saxatilis). Aquaculture, 251, 201–209.LIN YU-HUNG, SHIAU SHI-YEN (2007): Effects of dietary blend of fish oil with corn oil on growth and non-specific immune responses of grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus. Aquaculture Nutrition, 13, 137-144 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2095.2007.00458.xMaqsood S., Samoon M.H., Singh P. (2009): Immunomodulatory and growth promoting effect of dietary levamisole in Cyprinus carpio fingerlings against the challenge of Aeromonas hydrophila. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 9, 111–120.MISRA C.K., DAS B.K., MUKHERJEE S.C. (2009): Immune response, growth and survival of Labeo rohita fingerlings fed with levamisole supplemented diets for longer duration. Aquaculture Nutrition, 15, 356-365 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2095.2008.00600.xMULERO V., ESTEBAN M.A., MUÑOZ J., MESEGUER J. (1998): Dietary intake of levamisole enhances the immune response and disease resistance of the marine teleost gilthead seabream (Sparus aurataL.). Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 8, 49-62 https://doi.org/10.1006/fsim.1997.0119Oliva-Teles A (2012): Nutrition and health of aquaculture fish. Journal of Fish Diseases, 35, 83-108 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.2011.01333.xPeisker K. V. (1964): A rapid semi-micro method for preparation of methyl esters from triglycerides using chloroform, methanol, sulphuric acid. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 41, 87-88 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02661915Schreck C.B., Moyle P.B. (eds) (1990): Methods for Fish Biology. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, USA.Siwicki A.K., Robak S. (2011): The innate immunity of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) growing in natural conditions and intensive system of rearing. Central European Journal of Immunology, 36, 130–134.Siwicki A. K., Morand M., Klein P., Studnicka M., Terech-Majewska E. (): Modulation of Nonspecific Defence Mechanisms and Protection Against Diseases in Fish. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 67, 323-328 https://doi.org/10.2754/avb199867040323Siwicki A.K., Zakes Z., Trapkowska S., Kowalska A., Kazun K., Glabski E. (2003a): Selected hematological and biochemical parameters in pikeperch Sander lucioperca (L.) from intensive culture. Archives of Polish Fisheries, 11, 17–22.Siwicki A.K., Zakes Z., Trapkowska S., Terech-Majewska E., Czerniak S., Glabski E., Kazun K. (2003b): Nonspecific cellular and humoral defence mechanisms in pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) grown in an intensive system of culture. Archives of Polish Fisheries, 11, 207–212.Siwicki Andrzej K, Zakes Zdzislaw, Fuller John C, Nissen Steven, Trapkowska Sylwia, Glabski Edward, Kowalska Agata, Kazun Krzytof, Terech-Majewska Elzbieta (2006): Influence of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate on nonspecific humoral defense mechanisms and protection against furunculosis in pikeperch (Sander lucioperca). Aquaculture Research, 37, 127-131 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2109.2005.01407.xTahmasebi-Kohyani A., Keyvanshokooh S., Nematollahi A., Mahmoudi N., Pasha-Zanoosi H. (2011): Effects of dietary nucleotides supplementation on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) performance and acute stress response. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 8, 431–440.THOMPSON K.D., TATNER M.F., HENDERSON R.J. (1996): Effects of dietary (n-3) and (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio on the immune response of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.. Aquaculture Nutrition, 2, 21-31 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2095.1996.tb00004.xZakęś Zdzisław, Demska-Zakęś Krystyna, Kowalska Agata, Hancz Csaba, Jarmołowicz Sylwia (2010): Impact of diets supplemented with rapeseed, soy, and sunflower oils on growth rates and the histological picture of the livers of juvenile pikeperch, Sander lucioperca (L.). Archives of Polish Fisheries, 18, - https://doi.org/10.2478/v10086-010-0008-x