A mobile system for rearing meat chickens on pasture

https://doi.org/10.17221/7974-CJASCitation:Skřivan M., Pickinpaugh S.H., Pavlů V., Skřivanová E., Englmaierová M. (2015): A mobile system for rearing meat chickens on pasture. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 60: 52-59.
supplementary materialdownload PDF
The effect of grazing on the productive performance and meat quality was evaluated for chickens (Ross 308, n = 192). Chickens were kept in two pens on wooden shavings (2 × 96) from one day of age. On day 23 of age, one group was moved to a pasture and kept in a portable floorless pen with an area of 0.11 m2 per chicken. The field portion of the experiment was conducted from the 1st till the 18th of June 2013. A control group was kept in the original pen until the end of the experiment at 6 weeks of age. Both groups were fed the same pelleted feed ad libitum. For the pasture-reared group, the moveable shelter was moved twice daily around the pasture with a predominance of grass species. The herbage intake of chickens was indirectly assessed by compressed sward height measurement after each cage movement, which employed a rising plate-meter. In the pasture, chickens preferred grass over clover. There was no significant effect of grazing observed on chicken body weight. The mortality of chickens in the grazing group was lower than that in the control group. Pasture treatment improved meat flavour by 9% (P = 0.014), produced breast meat with significantly higher (P = 0.009) redness, and almost doubled the concentration of α-tocopherol (P < 0.001). There were no significant effects of grazing on the dry matter, fat, cholesterol or pH of the meat. The production of TBARS in the breast meat of the pasture group after storage at 4°C for 5 days was lower (P = 0.013) than that in the breast meat of the control chickens. Although the differences between K, Ca, P, Mg, and N concentrations in pasture and soil before and after grazing reached 20%, these differences were not significant.
References:
AOAC (2005): Official Methods of Analysis. 18th Ed. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, USA.
 
Breitsameter Laura, Küchenmeister Kai, Küchenmeister Frank, Wrage-Mönnig Nicole, Isselstein Johannes (2013): Canopy Cover and Herbage Accumulation of Fourteen Grassland Species When Stocked with Chickens. Agronomy Journal, 105, 727- https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2012.0348
 
CASTLE M. E. (1976): A simple disc instrument for estimating herbage yield. Grass and Forage Science, 31, 37-40 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.1976.tb01113.x
 
Dolezalova M., Molatova Z., Bunka F., Brezina P., Marounek M. (2010): Effect of organic acids on growth of chilled chicken skin microflora. Journal of Food Safety, 30, 353–365.
 
Eleroglu H., Yildirim A., Isikli N.D., Sekeroglu A., Duman M. (2013): Comparison of meat quality and fatty acid profile in slow-growing chicken genotypes fed diets supplemented with Origanum vulgare or Melissa oficinalis leaves under the organic system. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 64, 395–403.
 
EN 12822 (2000): Foodstuffs – Determination of vitamin E by high performance liquid chromatography – Measurement of α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherols. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium.
 
Englmaierova M., Bubancova I., Vit T., Skrivan M. (2011): The effect of lycopene and vitamin E on growth performance, quality and oxidative stability of chicken leg meat. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 56, 536–543.
 
Englmaierova M., Skrivan M., Bubancova I. (2013): A comparison of lutein, spray-dried Chlorella, and synthetic carotenoids effects on yolk colour, oxidative stability, and reproductive performance of laying hens. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 58, 412–419.
 
Fanatico A. C., Owens C. M., Emmert J. L. (): Organic poultry production in the United States: Broilers. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 18, 355-366 https://doi.org/10.3382/japr.2008-00123
 
Gatellier P., Mercier Y., Renerre M. (2004): Effect of diet finishing mode (pasture or mixed diet) on antioxidant status of Charolais bovine meat. Meat Science, 67, 385-394 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2003.11.009
 
Glatz P.C., Ru Y.J., Miao Z.H., Wiatt S.K., Rodda B.J. (2005): Integrating poultry into a crop and pasture farming system. International Journal of Poultry Science, 4, 187–191.
 
Grashorn M.A. (2010): Research into poultry meat quality. British Poultry Science, 51, 60-67 https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2010.506761
 
Grau A., Guardiola F., Grimpa S., Barroeta A. C., Codony R. (2001): Oxidative Stability of Dark Chicken Meat Through Frozen Storage: Influence of Dietary Fat and  -Tocopherol and Ascorbic Acid Supplementation. Poultry Science, 80, 1630-1642 https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/80.11.1630
 
Hilimire Kathleen, Gliessman Stephen R., Muramoto Joji (2013): Soil fertility and crop growth under poultry/crop integration. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 28, 173-182 https://doi.org/10.1017/S174217051200021X
 
Kalac P. (2012): Carotenoids, ergosterol and tocopherols in fresh and preserved herbage and their transfer to bovine milk fat and adipose tissues: a review. Journal of Agrobiology, 29, 1–13.
 
Kalac P. (2013): Fresh and ensiled forages as a source of estrogenic equol in bovine milk: a review. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 58, 296–303.
 
Kälber T., Meier J.S., Kreuzer M., Leiber F. (2011): Flowering catch crops used as forage plants for dairy cows: Influence on fatty acids and tocopherols in milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 94, 1477-1489 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3708
 
Kotrbacek V., Skrivan M., Kopecky J., Penkava O., Hudeckova P., Uhrikova I., Doubek J. (2013): Retention of carotenoids in egg yolks of laying hens supplemented with heterotrophic Chlorella. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 58, 193–200.
 
Larsen M.K., Frette X.C., Kristensen T., Eriksen J., Soegaard K., Nielsen J.H. (2012): Fatty acid, tocopherol and carotenoid content in herbage and milk affected by sward composition and season of grazing. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture, 92, 2691–2698.
 
Lorenz C., Grashorn M.A. (2012): Comparison of crop and gizzard content of conventional and organic broilers. In: Proc. 24th World’s Poultry Congress, Salvador de Bahia, Brazil, 92.
 
Lorenz C., Kany T., Grashorn M.A. (2013): Method to estimate feed intake from pasture in broilers and laying hens. Archiv für Geflügelkunde, 77, 160–165.
 
McGinley B.C., Ceffey K.P., Sauer T.J., Goodwin H.L., Humphry J.B., Coblentz W.K., McBeth L.J. (2004): Case study: Mineral content of forages grown on poultry litter-amended soils. The Professional Animal Scientist, 20, 136–145.
 
Mehlich A. (1984): Mehlich No. 3 soil test extractant, a modification of Mehlich No. 2. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 15, 1409–1416.
 
Meisser M., Deleglise C., Frelechoux F., Chassot A., Jeangros B., Mosimann E. (2014): Foraging behaviour and occupation pattern of beef cows on a heterogeneous pasture in the Swiss Alps. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 59, 84–95.
 
Mikulski D., Celej J., Jankowski J., Majewska T., Mikulska M. (2011): Growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of slower-growing chickens raised with and without outdoor access. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 24, 1407–1416.
 
Pavlata I., Antos D., Pechova A., Podhorsky A. (2008): Occurrence of vitamin E metabolism disorders, their diagnostics and therapy in cattle. Veterinářství, 58, 38–43. (in Czech)
 
Piette C., Raymond Y. (1999): Comparative evaluation of methods to determine rancidity in processed meat. Fleischwirtschaft, 7, 69–73. (in German)
 
Ponte P. I. P., Rosado C. M. C., Crespo J. P., Crespo D. G., Mourao J. L., Chaveiro-Soares M. A., Bras J. L. A., Mendes I., Gama L. T., Prates J. A. M., Ferreira L. M. A., Fontes C. M. G. A. (2008): Pasture Intake Improves the Performance and Meat Sensory Attributes of Free-Range Broilers. Poultry Science, 87, 71-79 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2007-00147
 
Sales J. (): Effects of access to pasture on performance, carcass composition, and meat quality in broilers: A meta-analysis. Poultry Science, 93, 1523-1533 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2013-03499
 
Singh M., Cowieson A.J. (2013): Range use and pasture consumption in free-range poultry production. Animal Production Science, 53, 1202–1208.
 
Sirri F., Castellini C., Bianchi M., Petracci M., Meluzzi A., Franchini A. (2011): Effect of fast-, medium- and slow-growing strains on meat quality of chickens reared under the organic farming method. animal, 5, 312-319 https://doi.org/10.1017/S175173111000176X
 
Skřivan M., Englmaierová M. (2014): The deposition of carotenoids and α-tocopherol in hen eggs produced under a combination of sequential feeding and grazing. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 190, 79-86 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2014.01.009
 
Sun T., Long R.J., Liu Z.Y. (2013): The effect of diet containing grasshoppers and access to free-range on carcase and meat physicochemical and sensory characteristics in broilers. British Poultry Science, 54, 130–137.
 
Surai P.F. (2003): Natural Antioxidans in Avian Nutrition and Reproduction. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK.
 
Velik M., Gangnat R., Kitzer R., Finotti E., Steinwidder A. (2013): Fattening heifers on continuous pasture in mountainous regions – implications for productivity and meat quality. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 58, 360–368.
 
AOAC (2005): Official Methods of Analysis. 18th Ed. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, USA.
 
Breitsameter L., Kuchenmeister K., Kuchenmeister F., Wrage-Monnig N., Isselstein J. (2013): Canopy cover and herbage accumulation of fourteen grassland species when stocked with chickens. Agronomy Journal, 105, 727–734.
 
CASTLE M. E. (1976): A simple disc instrument for estimating herbage yield. Grass and Forage Science, 31, 37-40 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2494.1976.tb01113.x
 
Dolezalova M., Molatova Z., Bunka F., Brezina P., Marounek M. (2010): Effect of organic acids on growth of chilled chicken skin microflora. Journal of Food Safety, 30, 353–365.
 
Eleroglu H., Yildirim A., Isikli N.D., Sekeroglu A., Duman M. (2013): Comparison of meat quality and fatty acid profile in slow-growing chicken genotypes fed diets supplemented with Origanum vulgare or Melissa oficinalis leaves under the organic system. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 64, 395–403.
 
EN 12822 (2000): Foodstuffs – Determination of vitamin E by high performance liquid chromatography – Measurement of α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherols. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium.
 
Englmaierova M., Bubancova I., Vit T., Skrivan M. (2011): The effect of lycopene and vitamin E on growth performance, quality and oxidative stability of chicken leg meat. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 56, 536–543.
 
Englmaierova M., Skrivan M., Bubancova I. (2013): A comparison of lutein, spray-dried Chlorella, and synthetic carotenoids effects on yolk colour, oxidative stability, and reproductive performance of laying hens. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 58, 412–419.
 
Fanatico A.C., Owens C.M., Emmert J.L. (2009): Organic poultry production in the United States. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 18, 355–366.
 
Gatellier P., Mercier Y., Renerre M. (2004): Effect of diet finishing mode (pasture or mixed diet) on antioxidant status of Charolais bovine meat. Meat Science, 67, 385-394 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2003.11.009
 
Glatz P.C., Ru Y.J., Miao Z.H., Wiatt S.K., Rodda B.J. (2005): Integrating poultry into a crop and pasture farming system. International Journal of Poultry Science, 4, 187–191.
 
Grashorn M.A. (2010): Research into poultry meat quality. British Poultry Science, 51, 60-67 https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2010.506761
 
Grau A.F., Quardiola S., Grimpa A., Barroeta C., Codony R. (2001): Oxidative stability of dark chicken meat through frozen storage. Influence of dietary α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid supplementation. Poultry Science, 80, 1630–1642.
 
Hilimire Kathleen, Gliessman Stephen R., Muramoto Joji (2013): Soil fertility and crop growth under poultry/crop integration. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 28, 173-182 https://doi.org/10.1017/S174217051200021X
 
Kalac P. (2012): Carotenoids, ergosterol and tocopherols in fresh and preserved herbage and their transfer to bovine milk fat and adipose tissues: a review. Journal of Agrobiology, 29, 1–13.
 
Kalac P. (2013): Fresh and ensiled forages as a source of estrogenic equol in bovine milk: a review. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 58, 296–303.
 
Kalber T., Meier J.S., Kreuzer M., Leiber F. (2011): Flowering catch crops used as forage plants for dairy cows: influence of fatty acids and tocopherols in milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 94, 1477–1489.
 
Kotrbacek V., Skrivan M., Kopecky J., Penkava O., Hudeckova P., Uhrikova I., Doubek J. (2013): Retention of carotenoids in egg yolks of laying hens supplemented with heterotrophic Chlorella. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 58, 193–200.
 
Larsen M.K., Frette X.C., Kristensen T., Eriksen J., Soegaard K., Nielsen J.H. (2012): Fatty acid, tocopherol and carotenoid content in herbage and milk affected by sward composition and season of grazing. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture, 92, 2691–2698.
 
Lorenz C., Grashorn M.A. (2012): Comparison of crop and gizzard content of conventional and organic broilers. In: Proc. 24th World’s Poultry Congress, Salvador de Bahia, Brazil, 92.
 
Lorenz C., Kany T., Grashorn M.A. (2013): Method to estimate feed intake from pasture in broilers and laying hens. Archiv für Geflügelkunde, 77, 160–165.
 
McGinley B.C., Ceffey K.P., Sauer T.J., Goodwin H.L., Humphry J.B., Coblentz W.K., McBeth L.J. (2004): Case study: Mineral content of forages grown on poultry litter-amended soils. The Professional Animal Scientist, 20, 136–145.
 
Mehlich A. (): Mehlich 3 soil test extractant: A modification of Mehlich 2 extractant. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 15, 1409-1416 https://doi.org/10.1080/00103628409367568
 
Meisser M., Deleglise C., Frelechoux F., Chassot A., Jeangros B., Mosimann E. (2014): Foraging behaviour and occupation pattern of beef cows on a heterogeneous pasture in the Swiss Alps. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 59, 84–95.
 
Mikulski Dariusz, Celej Joanna, Jankowski Jan, Majewska Teresa, Mikulska Marzena (2011): Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Slower-growing and Fast-growing Chickens Raised with and without Outdoor Access. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 24, 1407-1416 https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2011.11038
 
Pavlata I., Antos D., Pechova A., Podhorsky A. (2008): Occurrence of vitamin E metabolism disorders, their diagnostics and therapy in cattle. Veterinářství, 58, 38–43. (in Czech)
 
Piette C., Raymond Y. (1999): Comparative evaluation of methods to determine rancidity in processed meat. Fleischwirtschaft, 7, 69–73. (in German)
 
Ponte P. I. P., Rosado C. M. C., Crespo J. P., Crespo D. G., Mourao J. L., Chaveiro-Soares M. A., Bras J. L. A., Mendes I., Gama L. T., Prates J. A. M., Ferreira L. M. A., Fontes C. M. G. A. (2008): Pasture Intake Improves the Performance and Meat Sensory Attributes of Free-Range Broilers. Poultry Science, 87, 71-79 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2007-00147
 
Sales J. (): Effects of access to pasture on performance, carcass composition, and meat quality in broilers: A meta-analysis. Poultry Science, 93, 1523-1533 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2013-03499
 
Singh M., Cowieson A.J. (2013): Range use and pasture consumption in free-range poultry production. Animal Production Science, 53, 1202–1208.
 
Sirri F., Castellini C., Bianchi M., Petracci M., Meluzzi A., Franchini A. (2011): Effect of fast-, medium-, and slow-growing strains on meat quality of chickens reared under the organic farming method. Animal, 5, 312–319.
 
Skřivan M., Englmaierová M. (2014): The deposition of carotenoids and α-tocopherol in hen eggs produced under a combination of sequential feeding and grazing. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 190, 79-86 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2014.01.009
 
Sun T., Long R.J., Liu Z.Y. (2013): The effect of a diet containing grasshoppers and access to free-range on carcase and meat physicochemical and sensory characteristics in broilers. British Poultry Science, 54, 130-137 https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2012.756575
 
Surai P.F. (2003): Natural Antioxidans in Avian Nutrition and Reproduction. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK.
 
Velik M., Gangnat R., Kitzer R., Finotti E., Steinwidder A. (2013): Fattening heifers on continuous pasture in mountainous regions – implications for productivity and meat quality. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 58, 360–368.
 
supplementary materialdownload PDF

© 2019 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences