Increase in lutein and zeaxanthin content in the eggs of hens fed marigold flower extract
M. Skřivan, M. Englmaierová, E. Skřivanová, I. Bubancováhttps://doi.org/10.17221/8073-CJASCitation:Skřivan M., Englmaierová M., Skřivanová E., Bubancová I. (2015): Increase in lutein and zeaxanthin content in the eggs of hens fed marigold flower extract. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 60: 87-96.
Marigold flower extract (MFE), a natural source of xanthophylls, was added to the diets of hens at different concentrations (0, 150, 250, and 350 mg/kg of diet) to determine the effects of MFE on hen performance, physical characteristics of egg quality, and carotenoid content of the egg yolk of hens housed in enriched cages. Additionally, the highest dose of MFE (350 mg/kg) was tested under commercial poultry conditions and compared with a feed mixture with added synthetic carotenoids and a control diet without synthetic carotenoids. The highest hen-day egg production (P = 0.005) and egg mass production (P = 0.010) was found in hens fed a diet supplemented with MFE at 150 mg/kg. The performance characteristics, however, were not influenced by MFE under commercial conditions. When the dose of MFE was increased, increased values were observed for DSM Yolk Colour Fan (P < 0.001), redness (P < 0.001), yellowness (P < 0.001), ratio of redness and yellowness (P < 0.001), and decreased for lightness (P = 0.036). In the commercial study, the synthetic carotenoids decreased the value of yellowness (P < 0.001) compared with the control group. The lutein and zeaxanthin content in yolk increased by approximately 11.5 and 5.9 mg/kg dry matter, respectively, after the MFE addition of 350 mg/kg. Supplementation with synthetic carotenoids significantly (P < 0.001) decreased the α-tocopherol content in egg yolk. In conclusion, MFE is a suitable natural alternative for increasing the xanthophyll contents in eggs compared with the commercially used synthetic carotenoids.Keywords:carotenoids; Tagetes erecta L.; egg quality; yolk colour; hen performanceReferences:
Akdemir F., Orhan C., Sahin N., Sahin K., Hayirli A. (2012): Tomato powder in laying hen diets: effects on concentrations of yolk carotenoids and lipid peroxidation. British Poultry Science, 53, 675-680 https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668.2012.729142AOAC (2005): Official Methods of Analysis. 18th Ed. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, USA.Bartov I., Bornstein S. (1967): Studies on Egg Yolk Pigmentation: 3. The Effect of Origin and Storage Conditions of Yellow Corn on the Utilization of its Xanthophyll. Poultry Science, 46, 796-805 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0460796Breithaupt D.E. (2007): Modern application of xanthophylls in animal feeding – a review. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 18, 501-506 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2007.04.009Chung H.Y., Rasmussen H.M., Johnson E.J. (2004): Lutein bioavailability is higher from lutein-enriched eggs than from supplements and spinach in men. Journal of Nutrition, 134, 1887–1893.Dumbrava D., Matiuti M., Druga M., Lupea A., Ianculov I., Clep C. (2006): Effect of seabuckthorn berry flour from hens food on egg yolk carotenoidic pigments content. Annals of the Faculty of Engineering Hunedoara, 3, 156–160.EN 12822 (2000): Foodstuffs – Determination of vitamin E by high performance liquid chromatography – measurement of α-, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherols. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium.Englmaierová M., Skřivan M. (2013): Effect of synthetic carotenoids, lutein, and mustard on the performance and egg quality. Scientia Agriculturae Bohemica, 44, 138-143 https://doi.org/10.7160/sab.2013.440303Englmaierova M., Skrivan M., Bubancova I. (2013): A comparison of lutein and spray-dried Chlorella, and synthetic carotenoids effects on yolk colour, oxidative stability, and reproductive performance of laying hens. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 58, 412–419.European Union Council Directive (1970): Council Directive 70/524/EEC concerning additives in feedingstuffs. CELEX-EUR Official Journal, L 270, 1–17.European Union Council Directive (1999): Council Directive 1999/74/EC of July 19th, 1999. Official Journal of the European Communities, L 203, 53–57.Fredriksson Sofia, Elwinger Klas, Pickova Jana (2006): Fatty acid and carotenoid composition of egg yolk as an effect of microalgae addition to feed formula for laying hens. Food Chemistry, 99, 530-537 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.08.018Froescheis O, Moalli S, Liechti H, Bausch J (2000): Determination of lycopene in tissues and plasma of rats by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with photometric detection. Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications, 739, 291-299 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4347(99)00562-9Goodwin T W (1986): Metabolism, Nutrition, and Function of Carotenoids. Annual Review of Nutrition, 6, 273-297 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nu.06.070186.001421Granado F., Olmedilla B., Blanco I. (2003): Nutritional and clinical relevance of lutein in human health. British Journal of Nutrition, 90, 487- https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN2003927Hammershøj Marianne, Kidmose Ulla, Steenfeldt Sanna (2010): Deposition of carotenoids in egg yolk by short-term supplement of coloured carrot ( Daucus carota ) varieties as forage material for egg-laying hens. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90, 1163-1171 https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3937. B.M. Hasin, . A.J.M. Ferdaus, . M.A. Islam, . M.J. Uddin, . M.S. Islam (2006): Marigold and Orange Skin as Egg Yolk Color Promoting Agents. International Journal of Poultry Science, 5, 979-987 https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2006.979.987Haugh R.R. (1937): The Haugh unit for measuring egg quality. US Egg and Poultry Magazine, 43, 552–555, 572–573.HENCKEN H. (1992): Chemical and Physiological Behavior of Feed Carotenoids and Their Effects on Pigmentation. Poultry Science, 71, 711-717 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0710711Karadas F., Grammenidis E., Surai P. F., Acamovic T., Sparks N.H.C. (2006): Effects of carotenoids from lucerne, marigold and tomato on egg yolk pigmentation and carotenoid composition. British Poultry Science, 47, 561-566 https://doi.org/10.1080/00071660600962976Kotrbacek V., Skrivan M., Kopecky J., Penkava O., Hudeckova P., Uhrikova I., Doubek J. (2013): Retention of carotenoids in egg yolks of laying hens supplemented with heterotrophic Chlorella. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 58, 193–200.Krinsky Norman I. (1993): Actions of Carotenoids in Biological Systems. Annual Review of Nutrition, 13, 561-587 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nu.13.070193.003021Leeson S., Caston L. (2004): Enrichment of Eggs with Lutein. Poultry Science, 83, 1709-1712 https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/83.10.1709Leeson S., Caston L., Namkung H. (2007): Effect of dietary lutein and flax on performance, egg composition and liver status of laying hens. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 87, 365-372 https://doi.org/10.4141/A06-043Lokaewmanee Kanda, Yamauchi Koh-en, Komori Tsutomu, Saito Keiko (2011): Enhancement of Yolk Color in Raw and Boiled Egg Yolk with Lutein from Marigold Flower Meal and Marigold Flower Extract. The Journal of Poultry Science, 48, 25-32 https://doi.org/10.2141/jpsa.010059Lu J., Wang K., Qu L., Dou T., Tong H., Li S. (2013): Effects of marigold extract on laying performance, egg quality and yolk cholesterol content in suqin green-shelled laying hens. Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 9, 2067–2073.Nys Y. (2000): Dietary carotenoids and egg yolk coloration – a review. Archiv für Geflügelkunde, 64, 45–54.Quackenbush F.W., Miller S.L. (1972): Composition and analysis of the carotenoids in marigold petals. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 55, 617–621.Roberts Juliet R. (2004): Factors Affecting Egg Internal Quality and Egg Shell Quality in Laying Hens. The Journal of Poultry Science, 41, 161-177 https://doi.org/10.2141/jpsa.41.161. E. Rowghani, . A. Maddahian, . M. Arab Abousadi (2006): Effects of Addition of Marigold Flower, Safflower Petals, Red Pepper on Egg-yolk Color and Egg Production in Laying Hens. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 9, 1333-1337 https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2006.1333.1337Steinberg W., Grashorn M.A., Klunter A.M., Schierle J. (2000): Comparative pigmentation efficiency of two products containing either apo-ester or Tagetes extracts in egg yolks and liquid eggs. Archiv für Geflügelkunde, 64, 180–187.Zhang W., Zhang K. Y., Ding X. M., Bai S. P., Hernandez J. M., Yao B., Zhu Q. (): Influence of canthaxanthin on broiler breeder reproduction, chick quality, and performance. Poultry Science, 90, 1516-1522 https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2010-01126