Effects of dietary starch types on rumen fermentation and blood profile in goats
S.P. Wang, W.J. Wang, Z.L. Tanhttps://doi.org/10.17221/8666-CJASCitation:Wang S.P., Wang W.J., Tan Z.L. (2016): Effects of dietary starch types on rumen fermentation and blood profile in goats. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 61: 32-41.
The objective of the present study was to investigate how feeding a diet containing a type of purified starch entirely produced from normal or high amylose maize grains would affect rumen fermentation and blood profile in goats. Twenty rumen-cannulated growing goats were assigned equally to one of two dietary treatments according to a randomized controlled trial design and fed two total mixed rations with similar ingredients and chemical composition except for the types of purified maize starch. One type was the high amylose starch (HAS), and the other was the normal amylose starch (NAS). Compared to goats fed the NAS diet, goats fed the HAS diet had significantly higher ruminal pH (P = 0.00), molar proportions of acetate (P = 0.00), butyrate (P = 0.01) and isobutyrate (P = 0.00), acetate to propionate ratio (P = 0.00), plasma concentrations of glucose (P = 0.02) and C-reactive protein (P = 0.03), and plasma levels of insulin (P = 0.03) and gastrin (P = 0.04), but had significantly lower ruminal concentrations of lactate (P = 0.04) and total volatile fatty acids (P = 0.04), propionate molar percentage (P = 0.00), whole blood ammonia concentration (P = 0.02), plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen (P = 0.00) and creatinine (P = 0.02), plasma levels of glucagon (P = 0.02) and motilin (P = 0.04), and plasma activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (P = 0.02) and creatine kinase (P = 0.03). In addition, the HAS diet in comparison to the NAS diet tended to raise whole blood hematocrit (P = 0.08), plasma concentrations of albumin (P = 0.09), branched-chain amino acids (P = 0.09), valine (P = 0.09), phenylalanine (P = 0.08) and proline (P = 0.07), plasma levels of growth hormone (P = 0.06) and interleukin-2 (P = 0.07), and plasma α-amylase (P = 0.05) activity in goats. In conclusion, results showed that feeding goats the HAS diet instead of the NAS diet had multiple beneficial effects.Keywords:high amylose starch; rumen environmental parameter; blood indicator; ruminatReferences:
Akay V., Jackson J.A. (2001): Effects of NutriDense and Waxy Corn Hybrids on the Rumen Fermentation, Digestibility and Lactational Performance of Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 84, 1698-1706 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)74605-XAkay V, Jackson J A, Harmon D L (2002): NutriDense and waxy corn hybrids: effects on site and extent of disappearance of nutrients in sheep.. Journal of Animal Science, 80, 1335- https://doi.org/10.2527/2002.8051335xAli M., Cone J.W., Hendriks W.H., Struik P.C. (2014): Starch degradation in rumen fluid as influenced by genotype, climatic conditions and maturity stage of maize, grown under controlled conditions. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 193, 58-70 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2014.04.015AOAC (2005): Official Methods of Analysis. 18th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, USA.Chaney A.L., Marbach E.P. (1962): Modified reagents for determination of urea and ammonia. Clinical Chemistry, 8, 130–132.Deckardt Kathrin, Khol-Parisini Annabella, Zebeli Qendrim (2013): Peculiarities of Enhancing Resistant Starch in Ruminants Using Chemical Methods: Opportunities and Challenges. Nutrients, 5, 1970-1988 https://doi.org/10.3390/nu5061970Foley A.E., Hristov A.N., Melgar A., Ropp J.K., Etter R.P., Zaman S., Hunt C.W., Huber K., Price W.J. (2006): Effect of Barley and Its Amylopectin Content on Ruminal Fermentation and Nitrogen Utilization in Lactating Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 89, 4321-4335 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72479-1Hristov Alexander N., Ropp Jen K., Hunt Carl W. (2002): Effect of barley and its amylopectin content on ruminal fermentation and bacterial utilization of ammonia-N in vitro. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 99, 25-36 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(02)00076-7Huizenga J. R., Tangerman A., Gips C. H. (1994): Determination of Ammonia in Biological Fluids. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry: An international journal of biochemistry and laboratory medicine, 31, 529-543 https://doi.org/10.1177/000456329403100602Huntington G B (1997): Starch utilization by ruminants: from basics to the bunk.. Journal of Animal Science, 75, 852- https://doi.org/10.2527/1997.753852xHuntington G. B., Harmon D. L., Richards C. J. (2006): Sites, rates, and limits of starch digestion and glucose metabolism in growing cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 84, E14- https://doi.org/10.2527/2006.8413_supplE14xIqbal S., Zebeli Q., Mazzolari A., Dunn S.M., Ametaj B.N. (2010): Feeding rolled barley grain steeped in lactic acid modulated energy status and innate immunity in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 93, 5147-5156 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3118Jouany J.P. (1982): Volatile fatty acid and alcohol determination in digestive contents, silage juices, bacterial cultures and anaerobic fermentor contents. Sciences des Aliments, 2, 131–144.Kohn R. A., Dinneen M. M., Russek-Cohen E. (2005): Using blood urea nitrogen to predict nitrogen excretion and efficiency of nitrogen utilization in cattle, sheep, goats, horses, pigs, and rats. Journal of Animal Science, 83, 879- https://doi.org/10.2527/2005.834879xLeroy JLMR, Van Soom A, Opsomer G, Goovaerts IGF, Bols PEJ (2008): Reduced Fertility in High-yielding Dairy Cows: Are the Oocyte and Embryo in Danger? Part II
Mechanisms Linking Nutrition and Reduced Oocyte and Embryo Quality in High-yielding Dairy Cows*. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 43, 623-632 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0531.2007.00961.xNational Research Council (2007): Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants: Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA.Nozière Pierre, Rémond Didier, Lemosquet Sophie, Chauveau Béatrice, Durand Denys, Poncet Claude (2005): Effect of site of starch digestion on portal nutrient net fluxes in steers. British Journal of Nutrition, 94, 182- https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN20051481Pal G.K., Pravati P. (2006): Textbook of Practical Physiology for Dental Students. Orient BlackSwan/Universities Press, Andhra Pradesh, India.Reynolds C.K. (2006): Production and metabolic effects of site of starch digestion in dairy cattle. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 130, 78-94 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.01.019Satter L.D., Roffler R.E. (1975): Nitrogen Requirement and Utilization in Dairy Cattle. Journal of Dairy Science, 58, 1219-1237 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(75)84698-4Schroeder J.W, Marx G.D, Park C.S (1998): Waxy corn as a replacement for dent corn for lactating dairy cows. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 72, 111-120 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(97)00171-5Stevnebø Anita, Seppälä Arja, Harstad Odd Magne, Huhtanen Pekka (2009): Ruminal starch digestion characteristics in vitro of barley cultivars with varying amylose content. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 148, 167-182 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2008.03.011Svihus B., Uhlen A.K., Harstad O.M. (2005): Effect of starch granule structure, associated components and processing on nutritive value of cereal starch: A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 122, 303-320 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2005.02.025Tang Hanjun, Watanabe Katsumi, Mitsunaga Toshio (2002): Structure and functionality of large, medium and small granule starches in normal and waxy barley endosperms. Carbohydrate Polymers, 49, 217-224 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0144-8617(01)00329-0Thomas V. M., Glover D. V., Beeson W. M. (1976): Nitrogen and Energy Utilization of New Endosperm Types of Corn with Growing Steers. Journal of Animal Science, 42, 529- https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1976.422529xVan Soest P.J., Robertson J.B., Lewis B.A. (1991): Methods for Dietary Fiber, Neutral Detergent Fiber, and Nonstarch Polysaccharides in Relation to Animal Nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583-3597 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2Wang JinPeng, Li Yin, Tian YaoQi, Xu XueMing, Ji XueXia, Cao Xu, Jin ZhengYu (2010): A novel triple-wavelength colorimetric method for measuring amylose and amylopectin contents. Starch - Stärke, 62, 508-516 https://doi.org/10.1002/star.200900242Wang Shuiping, Wang Wenjuan, Tan Zhiliang, Liu Shimin, He Zhixiong, Zhong Rongzhen, Tang Shaoxun, Zhou Chuanshe, Han Xuefeng, Wang Min, Kang Jinhe (2012): Effects of ruminally degradable dietary protein level on nitrogen metabolism in wethers. Small Ruminant Research, 108, 59-66 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2012.07.004Zebeli Q., Dijkstra J., Tafaj M., Steingass H., Ametaj B.N., Drochner W. (2008): Modeling the Adequacy of Dietary Fiber in Dairy Cows Based on the Responses of Ruminal pH and Milk Fat Production to Composition of the Diet. Journal of Dairy Science, 91, 2046-2066 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2007-0572