Soy and milk based products fermented by yoghurt culture YC-381 alone or in combination with two probiotic cultures (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB 12 and Bifidobacterium bifidum CCDM 94) were prepared. Bacteria growth, the amounts of lactic acid, acetic acid, and acetaldehyde were compared after 16 h of fermentation at 37°C. The changes of isoflavones concentrations were also monitored in soy products. The growth of Streptococcus thermophilus and bifidobacteria was similar in both media, but Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus showed a better growth in milk. Titratable acidity and the concentrations of acids were consistently higher in cow milk than in soymilk at the end of fermentation. Bifidobacteria, compared to the yoghurt culture, were only able to acidify the media to the half values. Comparing the bifidobacteria strains, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB 12 exhibited a better ability to acidify milk. The strain Bifidobacterium bifidum CCDM 94 was able to release 6.90 mg/100 ml of isoflavone aglycones in soymilk.
Ang E.C., Boatright W.L. (2003): Olfactory Perception of Major Odorants Found in the Headspace of Aqueous Soy Protein Isolate Slurries. Journal of Food Science, 68, 388-393 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2003.tb14170.x
Blagden Trenna D., Gilliland Stanley E. (2005): Reduction of Levels of Volatile Components Associated with the “Beany” Flavor in Soymilk by Lactobacilli and Streptococci. Journal of Food Science, 70, M186-M189 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.tb07148.x
Champagne Claude P., Tompkins Thomas A., Buckley Nicole D., Green-Johnson Julia M. (2010): Effect of fermentation by pure and mixed cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus on isoflavone and B-vitamin content of a fermented soy beverage. Food Microbiology, 27, 968-972 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2010.06.003
CHEN TONG RONG, SU RUI QI, WEI QUE KING (2010): HYDROLYSIS OF ISOFLAVONE PHYTOESTROGENS IN SOYMILK FERMENTED BY LACTOBACILLUS
COCULTURES. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 34, 1-12 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4514.2009.00254.x
Chumchuere S., Robinson R.K. (1999): Selection of starter cultures forthe fermentation of soya milk. Food Microbiology, 16, 129-137 https://doi.org/10.1006/fmic.1998.0225
DESAI Ankur, SMALL Darryl, MCGILL Albert E.J., SHAH Nagendra P. (2002): Metabolism of Raffinose and Stachyose in Reconstituted Skim Milk and of n-Hexanal and Pentanal in Soymilk by Bifidobacteria. Bioscience and Microflora, 21, 245-250 https://doi.org/10.12938/bifidus1996.21.245
Ding W.K., Shah N.P. (2010): Enhancing the Biotransformation of Isoflavones in Soymilk Supplemented with Lactose Using Probiotic Bacteria during Extended Fermentation. Journal of Food Science, 75, M140-M149 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01526.x
Donkor Osaana N., Henriksson A., Vasiljevic T., Shah N.P. (2007): α-Galactosidase and proteolytic activities of selected probiotic and dairy cultures in fermented soymilk. Food Chemistry, 104, 10-20 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.10.065
Farnworth E.R., Mainville I., Desjardins M.-P., Gardner N., Fliss I., Champagne C. (2007): Growth of probiotic bacteria and bifidobacteria in a soy yogurt formulation. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 116, 174-181 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2006.12.015
Ishibashi N., Shimamura S. (1993): Bifidobacteria: research and development in Japan. Food Technology, 6: 126–136.
Izumi T., Piskula M.K., Osawa S., Obata A., Tobe K., Saito M., Kataoka S., Kubota Y., Kikuchi M. (2000): Soy isoflavone aglycones are absorbed faster and in higher amounts than their glucosides in humans. Journal of Nutrition, 130: 1695–1699.
Lankaputhra W.E.V., Shah N.P., Britz M.L. (1996): Survival of bifidobacteria during refrigerated storage in the presence of acid and hydrogen peroxide. Milchwissenschaft, 51: 65–70.
Margolles A., Sanchez B. (): Selection of a Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Strain with a Decreased Ability To Produce Acetic Acid. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78, 3338-3342 https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00129-12
Murti T.W., Roger S., Bouillianne C., Landon M., Desmazeaud M. (1992): Growth of Bifidobacterium sp. CNRZ 1494 in soybean milk and cow milk: effects on aroma compounds. Sciences des Aliments, 12: 429–439.
Nosova T., Jousimies-Somer H., Jokelainen K., Heine R., Salaspuro M. (2000): Acetaldehyde production and metabolism by human indigenous and probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains. Alcohol & Alcoholism, 35: 561–568.
Ozer Barbaros, Atasoy Ferit (2002): Effect of addition of amino acids, treatment with beta-galactosidase and use of heat-shocked cultures on the acetaldehyde level in yoghurt. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 55, 166-170 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-0307.2002.00041.x
PINTHONG R., MACRAE R., ROTHWELL J. (1980): The development of a soya-based yoghurt. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 15, 647-652 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1980.tb00985.x
Pyo Young-Hee, Lee Tung-Ching, Lee Young-Chul (2005): Enrichment of bioactive isoflavones in soymilk fermented with β-glucosidase-producing lactic acid bacteria. Food Research International, 38, 551-559 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2004.11.008
Rekha C.R., Vijayalakshmi G. (2010): Bioconversion of isoflavone glycosides to aglycones, mineral bioavailability and vitamin B complex in fermented soymilk by probiotic bacteria and yeast. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 109, 1198-1208 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04745.x
Scalabrini P (): Characterization of Bifidobacterium strains for use in soymilk fermentation. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 39, 213-219 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(98)00005-1
Setchell K.D.R., Brown N.M., Desai P., Zimmer-Nechemias L., Wolfe B.E., Brashear W.T., Kirschner A.S., Cassidy A., Heubi J.E. (2001): Bioavailability of pure isoflavones in healthy humans and analysis of commercial soy isoflavone supplements. Journal of Nutrition, 131: 1362–1375.
Shah Nagendra P. (2007): Functional cultures and health benefits. International Dairy Journal, 17, 1262-1277 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2007.01.014
Tsangalis D., Ashton J.F., Mcgill A.E.J., Shah N.P. (2003): Biotransformation of Isoflavones by Bifidobacteria in Fermented Soymilk Supplemented with D-Glucose and L-Cysteine. Journal of Food Science, 68, 623-631 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2003.tb05721.x
Tsangalis Dimitri, Shah Nagendra P. (2004): Metabolism of oligosaccharides and aldehydes and production of organic acids in soymilk by probiotic bifidobacteria. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 39, 541-554 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.00814.x
Xanthopoulos V., Petridis D., Tyanetakis N. (2001): Characterization and classification of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains isolated from traditional Greek yoghurt. Food Microbiology and Safety, 66: 747–752.