Chemical composition of propolis from the Baha region in Saudi Arabia

https://doi.org/10.17221/119/2017-CJFSCitation:Almohammadi O.H., Bakdash A., Abu Taha N.M.T., Abu-Rumman A.M., Kumar S. (2018): Chemical composition of propolis from the Baha region in Saudi Arabia. Czech J. Food Sci., 36: 109-118.
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The chemical composition of organic compounds in the extractable organic matter of propolis collected from the Baha region of Saudi Arabia was investigated. The propolis samples were extracted with methanol followed by column chromatography and collected in fractions (15 ml), then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Samples were injected with and without derivatization using BSTFA simultaneously. The results showed that a total of 61 chemical compounds were characterized and identified by analysing each of the fractions. Out of these, 33 compounds have not been reported previously. The Baha sample contains a high amount of aromatic acids, alcohol and phenol aldehydes. In addition to these, some other compounds (aliphatic acids, sugar derivatives, steroid derivatives and flavone derivatives) were also present. Some of the identified compounds have shown diverse biological activities: antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities. Methanolic extraction of propolis followed by column chromatography and GC-MS resulted in the separation of a high number of compounds compared with propolis samples from different geographical regions. The new identified compounds were found related to the flora of the Baha region. Therefore, the composition of propolis differs according to the plants found in the area in which it is produced. This may be used in the determination of a geographical area as the source of a propolis sample.

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