Evaluation of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of malting and hulless barley grain and malt extracts
Gordana Šimić, Daniela Horvat, Krešimir Dvojković, Ivan Abičić, Marija Viljevac Vuletić, Marijana Tucak, Alojzije Lalićhttps://doi.org/10.17221/144/2016-CJFSCitation:Šimić G., Horvat D., Dvojković K., Abičić I., Viljevac Vuletić M., Tucak M., Lalić A. (2017): Evaluation of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of malting and hulless barley grain and malt extracts . Czech J. Food Sci., 35: 73-78.
Nine malting and six hulless barley varieties were evaluated for their grain characteristics, β-glucans, total phenolic contents, and corresponding antioxidant activities determined by DPPH radical scavenging method. Samples were malted to compare malt quality properties between hulled and hulless types of barley and to estimate the influence of malting process on total phenolics. The highest levels of total phenolics and antioxidant activity were observed in the hulless barley lines GZ-191 and GZ-186. Malts were found to have higher antioxidant activity and contents of total phenolics than their corresponding barley. Results from the present study showed that hulless barley lines had on average higher protein, starch, β-glucan, malt extract content, and wort viscosity, but lower Kolbach Index and malt friability when compared to hulled malting varieties. The analysis of fifteen different barley samples shows that the barley type has an influence on both the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity, as well as on the malting performance of hulless and hulled barley.Keywords:
cereal crop; quality; bioactive; DPPH; β-glucanReferences:
Abdel-Aal El-Sayed M., Choo Thin-Meiw (2014): Differences in compositional properties of a hulless barley cultivar grown in 23 environments in eastern Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 94, 807-815 https://doi.org/10.4141/cjps2013-301Baik Byung-Kee, Ullrich Steven E. (2008): Barley for food: Characteristics, improvement, and renewed interest. Journal of Cereal Science, 48, 233-242 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2008.02.002Brand-Williams W., Cuvelier M.E., Berset C. (1995): Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 28, 25-30 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5Carvalho Daniel O., Gonçalves Luís M., Guido Luís F. (2016): Overall Antioxidant Properties of Malt and How They Are Influenced by the Individual Constituents of Barley and the Malting Process. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 15, 927-943 https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12218Dvořáková Markéta, Guido Luis F., Dostálek Pavel, Skulilová Zuzana, Moreira Manuela M., Barros Aquiles A. (2008): Antioxidant Properties of Free, Soluble Ester and Insoluble-Bound Phenolic Compounds in Different Barley Varieties and Corresponding Malts. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 114, 27-33 https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2050-0416.2008.tb00302.xDykes (2007): Phenolic Compounds in Cereal Grains and Their Health Benefits. Cereal Foods World, , - https://doi.org/10.1094/CFW-52-3-0105EBC Analysis Committee (1998): Analytica-EBC. Nurnberg, Verlag Hans Carl Getranke-Fachverlag.Ehrenbergerová J., Březinová Belcredi N., Psota V., Hrstková P., Cerkal R., Newman C. W. (2008): Changes Caused by Genotype and Environmental Conditions in Beta-Glucan Content of Spring Barley for Dietetically Beneficial Human Nutrition. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 63, 111-117 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-008-0079-7Ferrari B., Finocchiaro F., Stanca A.M., Gianinetti A. (2009): Optimization of air classification for the production of β-glucan-enriched barley flours. Journal of Cereal Science, 50, 152-158 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2009.04.007Fogarasi Attila-Levente, Kun Szilárd, Tankó Gabriella, Stefanovits-Bányai Éva, Hegyesné-Vecseri Beáta (2015): A comparative assessment of antioxidant properties, total phenolic content of einkorn, wheat, barley and their malts. Food Chemistry, 167, 1-6 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.06.084Fox G.P., Panozzo J.F., Li C.D., Lance R.C.M., Inkerman P.A. Henry R.J. (2003): Molecular basis of barley quality. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 54: 1081–1101.https://doi.org/10.1071/AR02237Gupta Mahesh, Abu-Ghannam Nissreen, Gallaghar Eimear (2010): Barley for Brewing: Characteristic Changes during Malting, Brewing and Applications of its By-Products. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 9, 318-328 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00112.xHoltekjølen A.K., Uhlen A.K., Bråthen E., Sahlstrøm S., Knutsen S.H. (2006): Contents of starch and non-starch polysaccharides in barley varieties of different origin. Food Chemistry, 94, 348-358 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.11.022Leitao Céline, Marchioni Eric, Bergaentzlé Martine, Zhao Minjie, Didierjean Luc, Miesch Laurence, Holder Emilie, Miesch Michel, Ennahar Saïd (2012): Fate of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of barley throughout malting and brewing. Journal of Cereal Science, 55, 318-322 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2012.01.002LIU Q, YAO H (2007): Antioxidant activities of barley seeds extracts. Food Chemistry, 102, 732-737 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.06.051Lu Jian, Zhao Haifeng, Chen Jian, Fan Wei, Dong Jianjun, Kong Weibao, Sun Junyong, Cao Yu, Cai Guolin (2007): Evolution of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity during Malting. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55, 10994-11001 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0722710Madhujith Terrence, Shahidi Fereidoon (2007): Antioxidative and Antiproliferative Properties of Selected Barley ( Hordeum vulgarae L.) Cultivars and Their Potential for Inhibition of Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Cholesterol Oxidation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55, 5018-5024 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf070072aNewton Adrian Clive, Flavell Andrew J., George Timothy S., Leat Philip, Mullholland Barry, Ramsay Luke, Revoredo-Giha Cesar, Russell Joanne, Steffenson Brian J., Swanston J. Stuart, Thomas William T. B., Waugh Robbie, White Philip J., Bingham Ian J. (2011): Crops that feed the world 4. Barley: a resilient crop? Strengths and weaknesses in the context of food security. Food Security, 3, 141-178 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-011-0126-3Qingming Yang, Xianhui Pan, Weibao Kong, Hong Yang, Yidan Su, Li Zhang, Yanan Zhang, Yuling Yang, Lan Ding, Guoan Liu (2010): Antioxidant activities of malt extract from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) toward various oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. Food Chemistry, 118, 84-89 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.04.094Sharma Paras, Gujral Hardeep Singh (2010): Antioxidant and polyphenol oxidase activity of germinated barley and its milling fractions. Food Chemistry, 120, 673-678 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.10.059Singleton V.L., Rossi, J.A. (1965): Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagent. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16: 144–158.Zhao Haifeng, Fan Wei, Dong Jianjun, Lu Jian, Chen Jian, Shan Lianju, Lin Yan, Kong Weibao (2008): Evaluation of antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of typical malting barley varieties. Food Chemistry, 107, 296-304 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.08.018Zieliński H., Kozłowska H. (2000): Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolics in Selected Cereal Grains and Their Different Morphological Fractions. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48, 2008-2016 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf990619oŽilić Slađana, Hadži-Tašković Šukalović Vesna, Dodig Dejan, Maksimović Vuk, Maksimović Milan, Basić Zorica (2011): Antioxidant activity of small grain cereals caused by phenolics and lipid soluble antioxidants. Journal of Cereal Science, 54, 417-424 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2011.08.006