Influence of temperature on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in pork steaks

Polak M.L., Demšar L., Zahija I., Polak T. (2020): Influence of temperature on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in pork steaks. Czech J. Food Sci., 38: 248–254.

download PDF

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of grilling temperatures on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in steaks from the pork loin (longissimus lumborum muscle). Grilling was carried out on a double hot plate grill set to the usual grilling temperatures of 120 °C to 280 °C and stopped when the internal temperature of 72 °C was reached. Among individual HAAs, the most abundant was 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP), as a maximum of 28.62 ng g–1 pork steak. in general, the total HAA levels increased with increasing grilling temperature. Higher HAA levels were observed at 260 °C compared to 240 °C, at 13.97 ng g–1, as a 68.7% increase. The highest total HAA levels were found at 280 °C (29.64 ng g–1 grilled pork steak), as a 258.0% increase compared to 240 °C. These data indicate that the formation of potentially carcinogenic HAAs during the grilling of pork steaks can be minimised by the using of lower grilling temperatures (≤ 240 °C).

Aaslyng M.D., Duedahl-Olesen L., Jensen K., Meinert L. (2013): Content of heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in pork, beef and chicken barbecued at home by Danish consumers. Meat Science, 93: 85–91.
Arvidsson P., Boekel M.A.J.S., Skog K., Jägerstad M. (1997): Kinetics of formation of polar heterocyclic amines in a meat model system. Journal of Food Science, 62: 911–916.
Balogh Z., Gray J.I., Gomaa E., Booren A.M. (2000): Formation and inhibition of heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried ground beef patties. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 38: 395–401.
Busquets R., Bordas M., Toribio F., Puignou L., Galceran M.T. (2004): Occurrence of heterocyclic amines in several home-cooked meat dishes of the Spanish diet. Journal of Chromatography, 802: 79–86.
Chiu C.P., Yang D.Y., Chen B.H. (1998): Formation of heterocyclic amines in cooked chicken legs. Journal of Food Protection, 61: 712–719.
Gibis M., Weiss J. (2015): Impact of precursors creatine, creatinine, and glucose on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in grilled patties of various animal species. Journal of Food Science, 80: 2430–2439.
Jackson L.S., Hargraves W.A. (1995): Effects of time and temperature on the formation of MeIQx and DiMeIQx in a model system containing threonine, glucose, and creatine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 43: 1678–1684.
Jagerstad M., Skog K. (2005): Genotoxicity of heat-processed foods. Mutation Research, 574: 156–172.
Knize M.G., Dolbeare F.A., Carroll K.L., Moore D.H., Felton J.S. (1994): Effect of cooking time and temperature on the heterocyclic amine content of fried beef patties. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 32: 595–603.
Liao G.Z., Wang G.Y., Xu G., Zhou G.H. (2010): Effect of cooking methods on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in chicken and duck breast. Meat Science, 85: 149–154.
Oz F., Kaya M. (2011): Heterocyclic aromatic amines in meat. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 35: 739–753.
Oz F., Kızıl M., Zaman A., Turhan S. (2016): The effects of direct addition of low and medium molecular weight chitosan on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in beef chop. Food Science and Technology, 65: 861–867.
Pfau W., Rosenvold K., Young J.F. (2006): Formation of mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried pork from Duroc and Landrace pigs upon feed supplementation with creatine monohydrate. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 44: 2086–2091.
Polak T., Došler D., Žlender B., Gašperlin L. (2009): Heterocyclic amines in aged and thermally treated pork Longissimus dorsi muscle of normal and PSE quality. Food Science and Technology, 42: 504–513.
Rahman U., Sahar A., Khan M.I., Nadeem M. (2014): Production of heterocyclic aromatic amines in meat: Chemistry, health risks and inhibition. A review. Food Science and Technology, 59: 229–233.
Randel G., Balzer M., Grupe S., Drusch S., Kaina B., Platt K.L., Schwarz K. (2007): Degradation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in oil under storage and frying conditions and reduction of their mutagenic potential. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 45: 2245–2253.
Salmon C.P., Knize M.G., Felton J.S., Zhao B., Seow A. (2006): Heterocyclic aromatic amines in domestically prepared chicken and fish from Singapore Chinese households. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 44: 484–492.
Sanz A.M., Ayala J.H., González V., Afonso A.M. (2008): Analytical methods applied to the determination of heterocyclic aromatic amines in foods. Journal of Chromatography B, 862: 15–42.
Skog K., Augustsson K., Steineck G., Stenberg M., Jägerstad M. (1997): Polar and non-polar heterocyclic amines in cooked fish and meat products and their corresponding pan residues. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 35: 555–565.
Skog K., Solyakov A. (2002): Heterocyclic amines in poultry products, a literature review. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 40: 1213–1221.
Szterk A. (2015): Heterocyclic aromatic amines in grilled beef: The influence of free amino acids, nitrogenous bases, nucleosides, protein and glucose on HAAs content. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 40: 39–46.
Zhang Y., Yu C., Mei J., Wang S. (2013): Formation and mitigation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried pork. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 30: 1501–1507.
download PDF

© 2020 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences