Production development for asparagus has become an important research subject due to its low shelf life. In order to determine the content of flavonoids in asparagus tips and shoots, LC-MS-based method was performed for a targeted analysis of flavonoids in asparagus, and 34 peaks attributed to the targeted flavonoids were characterised. Twelve peaks corresponding to rutin, isoquercitrin, quercetin, naringin, taxifolin, vitexin, genistin, daidzein, luteolin, chrysin, and kaempferide were identified and quantified from the asparagus tips and shoots by the LC-MS-based detection with monitoring of parent/daughter ions. The results showed that rutin (> 99%) was the main flavonoid present in the asparagus tips and shoots. Although the tips and shoots contained almost similar compounds, the content of the major compounds, especially rutin, was significantly different. Therefore, the method established through this study could be used for quantitative analysis of flavonoids, especially rutins, in asparagus. The result will provide a theoretical basis for food development in asparagus.
Jaegle B., Uroic M.K., Holtkotte X., Lucas Ch., Termath A.O., Schmalz H.G., Bucher M., Hoecker U., Hülskamp M., Schrader A. (2019): A fast and simple LC-MS-based characterization of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway for few seed(ling)s. BMC Plant Biology, 16: 190. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-016-0880-7
Fan R., Yuan F., Wang N., Gao Y., Huang Y. (2015): Extraction and analysis of antioxidant compounds from the residues of Asparagus officinalis L. Journal of Food Sciences and Technology, 52: 2690–2700. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-014-1360-4
Fuentes-Alventosa J.M., Rodríguez-Gutiérrez G., Cermeño P., Jiménez A., Guillén R., Fernández-Bolaños J., Rodríguez-Arcos R. (2009a): Identification of flavonoid diglycosides in several genotypes of Asparagus from the Huétor-Tájar population variety. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55: 10028–10035. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf071976z
Fuentes-Alventosa J.M., Rodríguez-Gutiérrez G., Jaramillo-Carmona S., Espejo-Calvo J.A., Rodríguez-Arcos R., Fernández-Bolaños J., Guillén-Bejarano R., Jiménez-Araujo A. (2009b): Effect of the extraction method on chemical composition and functional characteristics of high dietary fibre powders obtained from Asparagus byproducts. Food Chemistry, 113: 665–671. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.07.075
Hamdi A., Jaramillo-Carmona S., Beji R.S., Tej R., Zaoui S., Rodríguez-Arcos R. (2017): The phytochemical and bioactivity profiles of wild Asparagus albus L. plant. Food Research International, 99: 720–729. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2017.06.027
Ku Y.G., Kang D.H., Lee C.K., Lee S.Y., Ryu C.S., Kim D.E. (2018): Influence of different cultivation systems on bioactivity of asparagus. Food Chemistry, 244: 349–358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.10.044
Lee J.S, Kim D.H, Liu K.H, Oh T.K. (2005): Identification of flavonoids using liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization and ion trap tandem mass spectrometry with an MS/MS library. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 19: 3539–3548. https://doi.org/10.1002/rcm.2230
Lee H.A., Kim J.E., Sung J.E., Yun W.B., Kim D.S., Lee H.S., Hong J.T. (2018): Asparagus cochinchinensis stimulates release of nerve growth factor and abrogates oxidative stress in the Tg2576 model for Alzheimer’s disease. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 18: 125. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1775-3
Lee J.W., Lee J.H., Yu I.H., Gorinstein S., Bae J.H., Ku Y.G. (2014): Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and binding activities and spear yield of Asparagus officinalis L. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 69: 175–81. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-014-0418-9
Lu W., Bennett B.D., Rabinowitz J.D. (2008): Analytical strategies for LC-MS-based targeted metabolomics. Journal of Chromatography B, 871: 236–242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2008.04.031
Negi J.S., Singh P., Joshi G.P., Rawat M.S., Bisht V.K. (2010): Chemical constituents of Asparagus. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 4: 215–220. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-7847.70921
Nindo C.I., Sun T., Wang S.W., Tang J., Powers J.R. (2003): Evaluation of drying technologies for retention of physical quality and antioxidants in asparagus. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 36: 507–516. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(03)00046-X
Tang W.T., Fang M.F., Liu X., Yue M. (2014): Simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of flavonoids from ultraviolet-B radiation in leaves and roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi using LC-UV-ESI-Q/TOF/MS. Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry, 8: 1–9.
Wang B.S., Chang L.W., Wu C.H., Huang S.L., Chu H.L., Huang M.H. (2011): Antioxidant and antityrosinase activity of aqueous extracts of green asparagus. Food Chemistry, 127: 141–146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.12.102
Wang J., Liu Y., Zhao J., Zhang W., Pang X. (2013): Saponins extracted from by-product of Asparagus officinalis L. Suppress tumour cell migration and invasion through targeting rho GTPase signaling pathway. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 93: 1492–1498. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.5922
Zhang H., Birch J., Ma Z.F., Xie C., Yang H., Bekhit A.E., Dias G. (2018a): Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from New Zealand and Chinese Asparagus officinalis L. roots. Journal of Food Sciences and Technology, 12: 228–242.
Zhang H., Birch J., Xie C., Yang H., Dias G., Kong L., Bekhit A.E. (2018b): Optimization of extraction parameters of antioxidant activity of extracts from New Zealand and Chinese, Asparagus officinalis L. root cultivars. Industrial Crops and Products, 119: 191–200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.03.066