Fungal contamination spices from Indonesia with emphasis on Aspergillus flavus K., Zuhra C.F., Sembiring H., Bungsu A., Simanullang J., Silalahi J.E., Gultom B.N.L., Sartini S. (2019): Fungal contamination spices from Indonesia with emphasis on Aspergillus flavus. Czech J. Food Sci., 37: 338-344.
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Filamentous fungi were isolated from ten spices collected from markets in Indonesia. The aim was to enumerate fungal contamination and to determine the toxigenicity of Aspergillus flavus strains on each of the spices. Viable fungal populations were determined using a dilution method. Toxigenicity of Aspergillus flavus was determined by culture on a quick screening coconut agar and by PCR using four sets of primers specific for aflatoxin pathway genes. All the tested spices were contaminated by storage fungi, Species of Aspergillus was the most commonly isolated moulds followed by species of Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium and Rhizopus. The greatest number of Aspergillus flavus isolates were found on white pepper, followed by nutmeg, cardamom, and black pepper. The greatest number of Aspergillus chevalieri isolates were found on coriander, followed by nutmeg. Fifty strains of A. flavus were isolated, all of the strains produced large sclerotia and biseriate conidiophores. Their toxigenicity was assayed by the presence of yellow pigment on a quick screening coconut agar medium and PCR amplification of regulatory and structural genes in the aflatoxin pathway. 

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