Finger millet bioactive compounds, bioaccessibility, and potential health effects – a review  

https://doi.org/10.17221/206/2016-CJFSCitation:Okwudili Udeh H., Gyebi Duodu K., Israel Obiefuna Jideani A. (2017): Finger millet bioactive compounds, bioaccessibility, and potential health effects – a review  . Czech J. Food Sci., 35: 7-17.
download PDF
Finger millet is among minor cereal grains that are underutilised. However, over the years, research interest in the millet has increased owing to its abundance of bioactive compounds. These compounds which include, among others, ferulic acid-rich arabinoxylans or feraxans, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and quercetin have been associated with certain health promoting properties and have been found bioaccessible in the grain. Following the recent interest in natural curative substances over their synthetic counterparts in the treatment of food dependent diseases, finger millet has shown potential nutraceutical effects. Some important health effects such as antidiabetic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties have been reported in recent trials with the grain. This review emphasises the dietary fibre – arabinoxylan, and phenolic compounds of finger millet and their properties, and further discusses available evidence on their bioaccessibility and bioactivity. The information presented will further explore the potential of finger millet utilisation, its bioactive compounds, bioaccessibility, and potential health benefits, in view of stimulating further research.
References:
Amadou I., Gounga M.E., Le G.W. (2013): Millets: Nutritional composition, some health benefits and processing – a review. Food Science and Nutrition, 25: 501–508.
 
American Association of Cereal Chemist (2001): The definition of dietary fibre. Cereal Foods World, 46: 112–126.
 
Anthony U., Mosses L.G., Chandra T.S. (1998): Inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli by fermented flour of finger millet (Eleusine coracana). World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 14: 883–886. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008871412183
 
Bartlomiej S., Justyna R.-K., Ewa N. (): Bioactive compounds in cereal grains - occurrence, structure, technological significance and nutritional benefits - a review. Food Science and Technology International, 18, 559-568  https://doi.org/10.1177/1082013211433079
 
Banerjee S. (2012): Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) polyphenols: Investigation of their antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity. African Journal of Food Science, 6, -  https://doi.org/10.5897/AJFS12.031
 
Cardoso Carlos, Afonso Cláudia, Lourenço Helena, Costa Sara, Nunes Maria Leonor (2015): Bioaccessibility assessment methodologies and their consequences for the risk–benefit evaluation of food. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 41, 5-23  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2014.08.008
 
Chandrasekara Anoma, Shahidi Fereidoon (2011): Antiproliferative potential and DNA scission inhibitory activity of phenolics from whole millet grains. Journal of Functional Foods, 3, 159-170  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2011.03.008
 
Chandrasekara Anoma, Shahidi Fereidoon (2012): Bioaccessibility and antioxidant potential of millet grain phenolics as affected by simulated in vitro digestion and microbial fermentation. Journal of Functional Foods, 4, 226-237  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2011.11.001
 
Chandrasekara Anoma, Naczk Marian, Shahidi Fereidoon (2012): Effect of processing on the antioxidant activity of millet grains. Food Chemistry, 133, 1-9  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.09.043
 
. S. Chethan, . N.G. Malleshi (2007): Finger Millet Polyphenols: Characterization and their Nutraceutical Potential. American Journal of Food Technology, 2, 582-592  https://doi.org/10.3923/ajft.2007.582.592
 
Chethan S., Dharmesh S.M., Malleshi N.G. (2008a): Inhibition of aldose reductase from cataracted eye lenses by finger millet (Eleusine coracana) polyphenols. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, 16: 10085–10090.
 
Chethan S., Dharmesh S.M., Malleshi N.G. (2008b): Inhibition of aldose reductase from cataracted eye lenses by finger millet (Eleusine coracana) polyphenols. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, 16: 10085–10090.
 
Choi Ran, Kim Bo Hwan, Naowaboot Jarinyaporn, Lee Mi Young, Hyun Mi Ri, Cho Eun Ju, Lee Eun Soo, Lee Eun Young, Yang Young Chul, Chung Choon Hee (2011): Effects of ferulic acid on diabetic nephropathy in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Experimental and Molecular Medicine, 43, 676-  https://doi.org/10.3858/emm.2011.43.12.078
 
Devi Palanisamy Bruntha, Vijayabharathi Rajendran, Sathyabama Sathyaseelan, Malleshi Nagappa Gurusiddappa, Priyadarisini Venkatesan Brindha (2014): Health benefits of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) polyphenols and dietary fiber: a review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51, 1021-1040  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0584-9
 
Dykes Linda, Rooney Lloyd W. (2006): Sorghum and millet phenols and antioxidants. Journal of Cereal Science, 44, 236-251  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2006.06.007
 
Dykes (2007): Phenolic Compounds in Cereal Grains and Their Health Benefits. Cereal Foods World, , -  https://doi.org/10.1094/CFW-52-3-0105
 
Fardet A. (2010): New hypotheses for the health-protective mechanisms of whole-grain cereals: what is beyond fibre? Nutrition Research Review, 23: 65–134.
 
FAOSTAT (2004): Food and Agriculture Organization Statistical Database. Available at www.faostat.fat.org (accessed Aug 27, 2015).
 
Geetha C., Parvathi E.P. (1990): Hypoglycaemic effect of millet incorporated breakfast on selected non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. The Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics, 27: 316–320.
 
Gopalan C. (1981): Carbohydrates in diabetic diet. Bulletin of Nutrition Foundation, India, 3.
 
Hegde P.S., Anitha B., Chandra T.S. (2005): In vivo effect of whole grain flour of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) and kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum) on rat dermal wound healing. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 43: 254–258.
 
Hegde Prashant S, Chandrakasan Gowri, Chandra T.S (2002): Inhibition of collagen glycation and crosslinking in vitro by methanolic extracts of Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) and Kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum). The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 13, 517-521  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0955-2863(02)00171-7
 
Hithamani Gavirangappa, Srinivasan Krishnapura (2014): Effect of domestic processing on the polyphenol content and bioaccessibility in finger millet (Eleusine coracana) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum). Food Chemistry, 164, 55-62  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.04.107
 
ICRISAT/FAO (1996): The World Sorghum and Millet Economies: Facts, Trends and Outlook. Monograph. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics.
 
Izydorczyk M.S., Dexter J.E. (2008): Barley β-glucans and arabinoxylans: Molecular structure, physicochemical properties, and uses in food products–a Review. Food Research International, 41, 850-868  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2008.04.001
 
Kamath M. Vitaladasa, Belavady Bhavani (1980): Unavailable carbohydrates of commonly consumed Indian foods. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 31, 194-202  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740310211
 
Lakshmi Kumari P., Sumathi S. (2002): Effect of consumption of finger millet on hyperglycemia in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) subjects. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 57, 205-213  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021805028738
 
Lafiandra Domenico, Riccardi Gabriele, Shewry Peter R. (2014): Improving cereal grain carbohydrates for diet and health. Journal of Cereal Science, 59, 312-326  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2014.01.001
 
Liu R.H. (2004): Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: Mechanism of action. The Journal of Nutrition, 134: 3479–3485.
 
Liu Rui Hai (2007): Whole grain phytochemicals and health. Journal of Cereal Science, 46, 207-219  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2007.06.010
 
Muthamilarasan Mehanathan, Dhaka Annvi, Yadav Rattan, Prasad Manoj (2016): Exploration of millet models for developing nutrient rich graminaceous crops. Plant Science, 242, 89-97  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2015.08.023
 
NACZK M, SHAHIDI F (2004): Extraction and analysis of phenolics in food. Journal of Chromatography A, 1054, 95-111  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(04)01409-8
 
Nirmala M, Subba Rao M.V.S.S.T, Muralikrishna G (2000): Carbohydrates and their degrading enzymes from native and malted finger millet (Ragi, Eleusine coracana, Indaf-15). Food Chemistry, 69, 175-180  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(99)00250-2
 
Platel Kalpana, Eipeson Sushma W., Srinivasan Krishnapura (2010): Bioaccessible Mineral Content of Malted Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana), Wheat (Triticum aestivum), and Barley (Hordeum vulgare). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58, 8100-8103  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf100846e
 
Rajasekaran N.S., Nithya M., Rose C., Chandra T.S. (2004): The effect of finger millet feeding on the early responses during the process of wound healing in diabetic rats. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease, 1689, 190-201  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2004.03.004
 
Ramachandra Geeta, Virupaksha Tumkur K., Shadaksharaswamy M. (1977): Relation between tannin levels and in vitro protein digestibility in finger millet (Eleusine coracana Gaertn.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 25, 1101-1104  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60213a046
 
Rao R. Shyama Prasad, Muralikrishna G. (2006): Water soluble feruloyl arabinoxylans from rice and ragi: Changes upon malting and their consequence on antioxidant activity. Phytochemistry, 67, 91-99  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.09.036
 
Rao R. Shyama Prasad, Muralikrishna G. (2007): Structural characteristics of water-soluble feruloyl arabinoxylans from rice (Oryza sativa) and ragi (finger millet, Eleusine coracana): Variations upon malting. Food Chemistry, 104, 1160-1170  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.01.015
 
Rohn Sascha, Rawel Harshadrai M., Kroll Jürgen (2002): Inhibitory Effects of Plant Phenols on the Activity of Selected Enzymes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 3566-3571  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf011714b
 
Seetharam A., Riley K.W., Harinarayana G. (1986): Small millets in global agriculture. In: Proceedings of the First International Small Millets Workshop, Oct 29–Nov 2, 1986, Bangalore, India: 21–23.
 
Shahidi Fereidoon, Chandrasekara Anoma (2013): Millet grain phenolics and their role in disease risk reduction and health promotion: A review. Journal of Functional Foods, 5, 570-581  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2013.02.004
 
Shahidi F., Chandrasekara A. (2015): Processing of millet grains and effects on non-nutrient antioxidant compounds. In: Preedy V. (ed.): Processing and Impact on Active Components in Food. San Diego, Elsevier Science Publishing Co. Inc.: 345–352.
 
Shashi B.K., Sharan S., Hittalamani S., Shankar A.G., Nagarathna T.K. (2007): Micronutrient composition, antinutritional factors and bioaccessibility of iron in different finger millet (Eleusine coracana) genotypes. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Science, 20: 583–585.
 
Shobana Shanmugam, Harsha Mysore R., Platel Kalpana, Srinivasan Krishnapura, Malleshi Nagappa G. (2010): Amelioration of hyperglycaemia and its associated complications by finger millet ( Eleusine coracana L.) seed coat matter in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. British Journal of Nutrition, 104, 1787-1795  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114510002977
 
Shobana S., Sreerama Y.N., Malleshi N.G. (2009): Composition and enzyme inhibitory properties of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) seed coat phenolics: Mode of inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic amylase. Food Chemistry, 115, 1268-1273  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.01.042
 
Shobana S., Malleshi N.G. (2007): Preparation and functional properties of decorticated finger millet (Eleusine coracana). Journal of Food Engineering, 79, 529-538  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.01.076
 
Sreeramulu D., Reddy C.V.K., Raghunath M. (2009): Antioxidant activity of commonly consumed cereals, millets, pulses and legumes in India. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 46: 112–115.
 
Sripriya G (1996): ESR spectroscopic studies on free radical quenching action of finger millet (Eleusine coracana). Food Chemistry, 57, 537-540  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(96)00187-2
 
Subba Rao M.V.S.S.T, Muralikrishna G (2001): Non-starch polysaccharides and bound phenolic acids from native and malted finger millet (Ragi, Eleusine coracana, Indaf - 15). Food Chemistry, 72, 187-192  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00217-X
 
Subba Rao M. V. S. S. T., Muralikrishna G. (2002): Evaluation of the Antioxidant Properties of Free and Bound Phenolic Acids from Native and Malted Finger Millet (Ragi, Eleusine coracana Indaf-15). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 889-892  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf011210d
 
Subba Rao M.V.S.S.T., Muralikrishna G. (2004): Structural analysis of arabinoxylans isolated from native and malted finger millet (Eleusine coracana, ragi). Carbohydrate Research, 339, 2457-2463  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carres.2004.07.005
 
Tatala S, Ndossi G, Ash D, Mamiro P (2007): Effect of germination of finger millet on nutritional value of foods and effect of food supplement on nutrition and anaemia status in Tanzania children. Tanzania Journal of Health Research, 9, -  https://doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v9i2.14308
 
Tatham A.S., Fido R.J., Moore C.M., Kasarda D.D., Kuzmicky D.D., Keen J.N., Shewry P.R. (1996): Characterisation of the Major Prolamins of Tef (Eragrostis tef) and Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana). Journal of Cereal Science, 24, 65-71  https://doi.org/10.1006/jcrs.1996.0038
 
TOVEY F. I. (1994): Diet and duodenal ulcer. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 9, 177-185  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1746.1994.tb01240.x
 
Viswanath Varsha, Urooj Asna, Malleshi N.G. (2009): Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of finger millet polyphenols (Eleusine coracana). Food Chemistry, 114, 340-346  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.09.053
 
download PDF

© 2019 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences