Foaming properties, microstructure, and mathematical model of foam mat drying of pasta sauce based on tomato
In the present study, the foam mat drying technique was used to dry pasta sauce based on tomato to become powder. The effect of different egg white concentrations (3, 6, and 9%) and whipping time (2 min and 5 min) on the foam properties of pasta sauce, including foam density, foam expansion, foam viscosity, water activity, morphological and drying behaviour, were investigated. The foamed sauce was dried in a batch-type thin-layer dryer at constant conditions (temperature of 60 °C). Six thin-layer drying models were employed to determine the drying kinetics of the pasta sauce. The results showed that an increase in the egg white concentration and a decrease in the whipping time produced a foamed sauce with low foam density and viscosity and high foam expansion. The Wang and Singh model was the best model to describe the drying behaviour of foamed sauce. According to Fick's second law model, the effective moisture diffusivity of the pasta sauce ranged from 4.95 × 10–7 to 10.04 × 10–7 m2 s–1.
Abbasi E., Azizpour M. (2016): Evaluation of physicochemical properties of foam mat dried sour cherry powder. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 68: 105–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.12.004
Antunes A.M., Evangelista Z.R., Santos M.M. (2017): Mathematical modeling of the pulp drying curves murici (Byrsonima crassifolia): The foam layer drying. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 12: 1547–1551. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2016.11996
AOAC (1990): Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Ed. Washington, D.C., US, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc.: 834.
Asokapandian S., Venkatachalam S., Swamy G.J., Kuppusamy K. (2015): Optimation of foaming properties and foam mat drying of muskmelon using soy protein. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 39: 692–701. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.12261
Azizpour M., Mohebbi M., Khodaparast M.H.H. (2016): Effects of foam-mat drying temperature on physico-chemical and microstructural properties of shrimp powder. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 34: 122–126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2016.01.002
Azizpour M., Mohebbi M., Khodaparast M.H.H., Varidi M. (2014): Optimization of foaming parameters and investigating the effects of drying temperature on the foam-mat drying of shrimp (Penaeus indicus). Drying Technology: An International Journal, 32: 374–384. https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2013.794829
Bag S.K., Srivastav P.P. (2011): Optimization of process parameters for foaming of bael (Aegle marmelos L.) fruit pulp. Food Bioprocess Technology, 4: 1450–1458. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-009-0243-6
Balasubramanian S., Paridhi G., Bosco J.D., Kadam D.M. (2012): Optimization of process conditions for the development of tomato foam by Box-Behnken design. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 3: 925–930. https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2012.37122
Bonazzi C., Dumoulin E. (2011): Quality changes in food materials as influenced by drying processes. Modern Drying Technology, 3: 1–20.
Das S., Banerjee S., Pal J. (2015): Mathematical modeling of foam-mat dried pumpkin pulp. International Journal of Food and Nutritional Sciences, 4: 50–55.
Diamante L.M., Munro P.A. (1993): Mathematical modelling of thin layer solar drying of sweet potato slices. Solar Energy, 51: 271–276. https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-092X(93)90122-5
Doymaz I. (2013): Determination of infrared drying characteristics and modelling of drying behaviour of carrot pomace. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 19: 44–53.
Erbay Z., Icier F. (2010): A review of thin layer drying of foods: Theory, modeling, and experimental results. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 50: 441–464. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408390802437063
Falade K.O., Adeyanju K.I., Uzo-Peters P.I. (2003): Foam-mat drying of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) using glyceryl monostearate and egg albumin as foaming agents. Europe Food Research Technology, 217: 486–491. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-003-0775-3
Febrianto A., Kumalaningsih S., Aswari A.W. (2012): Process engineering of drying milk powder with foam mat drying method, a study of the effect of the concentration and types of Filler. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 2: 3588–3592.
Franco T.S., Parusello C.A., Ellendersen L.N., Mason M.L. (2016): Effects of foam mat drying on physicochemical and microstructural properties of yacon juice powder. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 66: 503–513. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.11.009
Hardy Z., Jideani V.A. (2017): Foam-mat drying technology: A review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 57: 2560–2570. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2015.1020359
Krasaekoopt W., Bhatia S. (2012): Production of yogurt powder using foam-mat drying. AU Journal of Technology, 15: 166–171.
Labelle R.L. (1984): Principles of foam mat drying. Journal Food Technology, 20: 89–91.
Maciel R.M.G., Afonso M.R.A., Costa J.M.C., Severo L.S., de Lima N.D. (2017): Mathematical modeling of the foam-mat drying curves of guava pulp. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental, 21: 721–725. https://doi.org/10.1590/1807-1929/agriambi.v21n10p721-725
Mercier S., Mondor M., Moresoli C., Villeneuve S., Marcos B. (2015): Drying of durum wheat pasta and enriched pasta: A review of modeling ppproaches. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 56: 1146–1168. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2012.757691
Mishra B., Mishra J., Pati P. K., Rath P. K. (2017): Dehydrated meat products: A review. International Journal of Livestock Research, 7: 10–22. https://doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20170812035616
Sadahira M.S., Rodrigues M.I., Akhtar M., Murray B.S., Netto F.M. (2016): Effect of egg white protein-pectin electrostatic interactions in a high sugar content system on foaming and foam rheological properties. Food Hydrocolloids, 58: 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2016.02.007
Salahi M.R., Mohebbi M., Taghizadeh M. (2014): Foam-mat drying of cantaloupe (Cucumis melo): Optimization of foaming parameters and investigating drying characteristics. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 39: 1798–1808. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.12414
Yerlikaya P., Gokoglu N., Uran H. (2005): Quality changes of fish patties produced from anchovy during refrigerated storage. European Food Research and Technology, 220: 287–291. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-004-1035-x