Mycotoxins in apples coming from organic production and integrated pest management

https://doi.org/10.17221/246/2020-CJFSCitation:

Sehonová P., Němečková M., Plhalová L., Maršálek P., Doubková V., Chloupek P., Čaloudová J., Svobodová Z., Blahová J. (2021): Mycotoxins in apples coming from organic production and integrated pest management. Czech J. Food Sci., 39: 100–105.

download PDF

The aim of this study was to compare the occurrence of important mycotoxins often contaminating fruits, in particular aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, patulin, and an indicator of fungal metabolism – kojic acid, in dried apples from organic production and integrated pest management with origin in the Czech Republic. Regardless of the production management, both aflatoxin B1 and patulin concentrations were below the limit of quantification. Ochratoxin A was present in all samples examined in our study with concentrations ranging from 4.22 to 15.99 µg kg–1. Kojic acid concentrations ranged from 3.57 to 9.44 mg kg–1. However, no significant difference in ochratoxin A and kojic acid concentrations was found between samples coming from integrated pest management and samples coming from organic agriculture. The results of this study show that apples originating in organic production or integrated pest management have, under the same independent conditions, an equal probability of containing (or omitting) similar levels of the investigated mycotoxins. Moreover, these results, while demonstrating safe levels of some mycotoxins in different agricultural practices also highlight gaps in knowledge and legislation that may have direct and crucial effects on human health.

References:
Al-Hazmi N.A. (2010): Determination of Patulin and Ochratoxin A using HPLC in apple juice samples in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 17: 353–359. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2010.06.006
 
Aziz N.H., Moussa L.A.A., Far F.M.E. (2004): Reduction of fungi and mycotoxins formation in seeds by gamma-radiation. Journal of Food Safety, 24: 109–127. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4565.2004.tb00379.x
 
Baker B.P., Green T.A., Loker A.J. (2020): Biological control and integrated pest management in organic and conventional systems. Biological Control, 140: 104095. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2019.104095
 
Barkai-Golan R., Paster N. (2008): Mouldy fruits and vegetables as a source of mycotoxins: part 1. World Mycotoxin Journal, 2: 147–159. https://doi.org/10.3920/WMJ2008.x018
 
Bhatnagar D., Ehrlich K. C., Moore G.G., Payne G.A. (2014): Aspergillus Aspergillus flavus. In: Batt C.A., Tortorello M.L. (eds.): Encyclopaedia of Food Microbiology. 2nd Ed. Academic Press, Oxford: 83–91.
 
Eskola M., Kos G., Elliot C.T., Hajslova J., Mayar S., Krska R. (2019): Worldwide contamination of food-crops with mycotoxins: Validity of the widely cited 'FAO estimate' of 25%. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 60: 2773–2789. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2019.1658570
 
European Commission (2020): Agricultural production – Orchards. Agriculture statistics at regional level. Available at https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Agricultural_production_-_orchards#General_overview (accessed June 6, 2020).
 
FAO (2000): Food Safety and Quality as affected by Organic Farming. Twenty-Second Fao Regional Conference for Europe, Porto, Portugal, July 24–28, 2000. Available at http://www.fao.org/unfao/govbodies/gsb-search/gsb-iframe/en/?dmurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.fao.org%2Funfao%2Fbodies%2FRegConferences%2Ferc22%2Ferc22-e.htm (accessed June 6, 2020).
 
Fernández-Cruz M.L., Mansilla M.L., Tadeo J.L. (2010): Mycotoxins in fruits and their processed products: Analysis, occurrence and health implications. Journal of Advanced Research, 1: 113–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2010.03.002
 
Fliege R., Metzler M. (2000): Electrophilic properties of patulin. N-Acetylcysteine and glutathione adducts. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 13: 373–381. https://doi.org/10.1021/tx9901480
 
Köhl J., Wenneker M., Groenenboom-de Haas B.H., Anbergen R., Groosen-van de Geijn H.M., Lombaers-van der Plas C.H., Pinto F.A.M.F., Kastelein P. (2018): Dynamics of post-harvest pathogens Neofabraea spp. and Cadophara spp. in plant residues in Dutch apple and pear orchards. Plant Pathology, 67: 1264–1277. https://doi.org/10.1111/ppa.12854
 
Madalena M., Sobral C., Faria M.A., Cunha S.C., Ferreira I.M.P.L.V.O. (2018): Toxicological interactions between mycotoxins from ubiquitous fungi: Impact on hepatic and intestinal human epithelial cells. Chemosphere, 202: 538–548. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.03.122
 
Malir F., Ostry V., Pfohl-Leszkowicz A., Malir J., Toman J. (2016): Ochratoxin A: 50 years of research. Toxins, 8: 191. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8070191
 
Marin S., Ramos A.J., Cano-Sancho G., Sanchis V. (2013): Mycotoxins: Occurrence, toxicology, and exposure assessment. Food Chemical Toxicology, 60: 218–237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2013.07.047
 
Ministry of Agriculture (2019): Situation and outlook report. Fruit. (Situační a výhledová zpráva. Ovoce). Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic. Available at http://eagri.cz/public/web/file/643716/SVZ_Ovoce_12_2019.pdf (accessed Dec 30, 2020). (in Czech)
 
Sulyok M., Stadler D., Steiner D., Krska R. (2020): Validation of an LC-MS/MS-based dilute-and-shoot approach for the quantification of > 500 mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites in food crops: challenges and solutions. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 412: 2607–2620. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-020-02489-9
 
Rice L.G., Ross P.F. (1994): Methods for detection and quantitation of fumonisins in corn, cereal products and animal excreta. Journal of Food Protection, 57: 563–540.
 
Vaclavikova M., Dzuman Z., Lacina O., Fenclova M., Vepri-kova Z., Zachariasova M., Hajslova J. (2015): Monitoring survey of patulin in a variety of fruit-based products using a sensitive UHPLC–MS/MS analytical procedure. Food Control, 47: 577–584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.07.064
 
Wei C.I., Huang T.S., Fernando S.Y., Chung K.T. (1991): Mutagenicity studies of kojic acid. Toxicology Letters, 59: 213–220. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4274(91)90074-G
 
Wichmann G., Herbarth O., Lehmann I. (2002): The mycotoxins citrinin, gliotoxin and patulin affect interferon-gamma rather than interleukin-4 production in human blood cells. Environmental Toxicology, 17: 211–218. https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.10050
 
download PDF

© 2021 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti