Mycotoxins in apples coming from organic production and integrated pest management
The aim of this study was to compare the occurrence of important mycotoxins often contaminating fruits, in particular aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, patulin, and an indicator of fungal metabolism – kojic acid, in dried apples from organic production and integrated pest management with origin in the Czech Republic. Regardless of the production management, both aflatoxin B1 and patulin concentrations were below the limit of quantification. Ochratoxin A was present in all samples examined in our study with concentrations ranging from 4.22 to 15.99 µg kg–1. Kojic acid concentrations ranged from 3.57 to 9.44 mg kg–1. However, no significant difference in ochratoxin A and kojic acid concentrations was found between samples coming from integrated pest management and samples coming from organic agriculture. The results of this study show that apples originating in organic production or integrated pest management have, under the same independent conditions, an equal probability of containing (or omitting) similar levels of the investigated mycotoxins. Moreover, these results, while demonstrating safe levels of some mycotoxins in different agricultural practices also highlight gaps in knowledge and legislation that may have direct and crucial effects on human health.
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