Natural bioactive compounds of honey and their antimicrobial activity

Feknous N., Boumendjel M. (2022): Natural bioactive compounds of honey and their antimicrobial activity. Czech J. Food Sci., 40: 163–178.

download PDF

Honey is a complex and variable mixture that contains more than 180 biochemical compounds from various molecule families. This mixture is obtained after processing the nectar out of plant food sources at the level of the bee abdomen. The bioactive components found in this natural product are in charge of its antimicrobial properties. Honey is used for its antibacterial actions against Gram-positive (Gram+) and Gram-negative (Gram–) bacteria, its anti-fungal and antimycotic actions against moulds and yeasts, along with its protozoal and antiviral activities. This literature review outlines the natural antimicrobial potential of honey; it explains the factors responsible for this potential and spells out their mechanisms of action. Osmotic pressure, water activity, the acid content of honey, presence of bioactive compounds like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), phenolic acids, flavonoids, methylglyoxal (MGO), defensin-1, lysozyme, volatile compounds as well as antibacterial products secreted from the lactic bacteria that are behind this antimicrobial activity. This potential basically depends on the biological activities of the initially harvested floral source, its geographical origin, season, storage conditions, honey age, health of bee colonies and suitable beekeeping practices.

Abd El-Moaty H.I. (2010): Essential oil and iridoide glycosides of Nepeta septemcrenata Erenb. Journal of Natural Products, 3: 103–111.
Abdel-Naby Awad O.G., Hamad A.M.H. (2018): Honey can help in herpes simplex gingivostomatitis in children: Prospective randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial. American Journal of Otolaryngology, 39: 759–763.
Abdulrhman M.M., El-Hefnawy M.H., Aly R.H., Shatla R.H., Mamdouh R.M., Mahmoud D.M., Mohamed W.S. (2013): Metabolic effects of honey in type 1 diabetes mellitus: A randomized crossover pilot study. Journal of Medicinal Food, 16: 66–72.
Abdulrhman M.A., Shatla R.H., Mohamed S.A. (2016): The effects of honey supplementation on Egyptian children with hepatitis A: A randomized double blinded placebo-controlled pilot study. Journal of Apitherapy, 1: 23.
Adams C.J., Manley-Harris M., Molan P.C. (2009): The origin of methylglyoxal in New Zealand Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honey. Carbohydrate Research, 344: 1050–1053.
Adcock D. (1962): The effect of catalase on inhibine and peroxide values of various honeys. Journal of Apicultural Research, 1: 38–40.
Adebolu T. (2005): Effect of natural honey on local isolates of diarrhea-causing bacteria in southwestern Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4: 1172–1174.
Ahmadi-Motamayel F., Hendi S.S., Alikhani M.Y., Khamverdi Z. (2013): Antibacterial activity of honey on cariogenic bacteria. Journal of Dental (Tehran), 10: 10–15.
Ahmed A.K., Hoekstra M.J., Hage J., Karim R.B. (2003): Honey-medicated dressing: Transformation of an ancient remedy into modern therapy. Annals of Plastic Surgery, 50: 143–148.
Ahmed S., Othman H.N. (2013): Review of the medicinal effects of Tualang honey and a comparison with Manuka honey. Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences, 20: 6–13.
Aksoy T., Sivcan E., Doğan F., Çetin S., Yar T.M. (2020): Investigation of anti-leishmanial effects of bee products (honey, propolis) on Leishmania tropica promastigotes. Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni, 54: 479–489.
Almasaudi S. (2021): The antibacterial activities of honey. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 28: 2188–2196.
Alvarez-Suarez J.M., Gasparrini M., Forbes-Hernández T.Y., Mazzoni L., Giampieri F. (2014): The composition and biological activity of honey: A focus on Manuka honey. Foods, 3: 420–432.
Alvarez-Suarez J.M., Tulipani S., Dıaz D., Estevez Y., Romandini S., Giampieri F., Damiani E., Astolfi P., Bompadre S., Battino M. (2010): Antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity of several monofloral Cuban honeys and their correlation with color, polyphenol content and other chemical compounds. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48: 2490–2499.
Al-Waili N.S., Haq A. (2004): Effect of honey on antibody production against thymus-dependent and thymus-independent antigens in primary and secondary immune responses. Journal of Medicinal Food, 7: 491–494.
Al-Waili N.S., Salom K., Butler G., Al Ghamdi A.A. (2011): Honey and microbial infections: A review supporting the use of honey for microbial control. Journal of Medicinal Food, 14: 1079–1096.
Amenu D. (2013): The antibacterial activity of honey. International Journal of Current Research and Academic Review, 1: 102–116.
Anthimidou E., Mossialos D. (2013): Antibacterial activity of Greek and Cypriot honeys against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in comparison to Manuka honey. Journal of Medicinal Food, 16: 42–47.
Aronstein K.A., Murray K.D., Saldivar E. (2010): Transcriptional responses in honey bees larvae infected with chalkbrood fungus. BMC Genomics, 11: 1–12.
Asadi-Pooya A., Pnjehshahin M., Beheshti S. (2003): The antimycobacterial effect of honey: An in vitro study. Rivista di Biologia, 66: 491–496.
Atrott J., Henle T. (2009): Methylglyoxal in Manuka honey – Correlation with antibacterial properties. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 27: S163–S165.
Aween M.M., Hassan Z., Muhialdin B.J., Noor H.M., Eljamel Y.A. (2012a): Evaluation on antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus strains isolated from honey. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 9: 807–817.
Aween M.M., Zaiton H., Belal J.M., Yossra A.E., Asma S.W., Al-Mabrok M., Nizam L. (2012b): Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus strains isolated from honey marketed in Malaysia against selected multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) Gram-positive bacteria. Journal of Food Science, 77: 364–371.
Bahiru B., Mehari T., Ashenafi M. (2006): Yeast and lactic acid flora of tej, an indigenous Ethiopian honey wine: Variations within and between production units. Food Microbiology, 23: 277–282.
Bansal V., Medhi B., Pandhi P. (2005): Honey – A remedy discovered and its therapeutic utility. Kathmandu University Medical Journal, 3: 305–309.
Basualdo C., Sgroy V.N., Finola M.S., Marioli J.M. (2007): Comparison of the antibacterial activity of honey from different provenance against bacteria usually isolated from skin wounds. Veterinary Microbiology, 124: 375–81.
Behbahani M. (2014): Anti-HIV-1 activity of eight monofloral Iranian honey types. PLoS One, 9: e108195.
Belhaj O., Oumato J., Zrira S. (2015): Physico-chemical study of some types of Moroccan honey (Etude physico-chimiques de quelques types de miels Marocains). Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires, 3: 71–75. (in French)
Bogdanov S., Blumer P. (2001): Natural Antibiotic Properties of Honey (Propriétés Antibiotiques Naturelles du Miel). Bern, Switzerland, Centre Suisse de Recherche Apicoles: 1–8. (in French)
Bogdanov S., Jurendic T., Sieber R., Gallmann P. (2008): Honey for nutrition and health: A review. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 27: 677–689.
Bourlioux P. (2013): What alternatives does our anti-infective therapeutic arsenal have against multi-resistant bacteria? (De quelles alternatives notre arsenal thérapeutique anti-infectieux dispose-til face aux bactéries multi-résistantes?). Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises, 71: 150–158. (in French)
Brudzynski K., Lannigan R. (2012): Mechanism of honey bacteriostatic action against MRSA and VRE involves hydroxyl radicals generated from honey's hydrogen peroxide. Frontiers in Microbiology, 3: 36.
Brudzynski K., Miotto D., Kim L., Sjaarda C., Maldonado-Alvarez L., Fukś H. (2017): Active macromolecules of honey form colloidal particles essential for honey antibacterial activity and hydrogen peroxide production. Scientific Reports, 7: 7637.
Bruneau E. (2006): Antibiotics in honey (Antibiotiques dans le miel). Abeille and Cie, 110: 26–28. (in French)
Bucekova M., Jardekova L., Juricova V., Bugarova V., Di Mar-co G., Gismondi A., Leonardi D., Farkasovska J., Godocikova J., Laho M., Klaudiny J., Majtan V., Canini A., Majtan J. (2019): Antibacterial activity of different blossom honeys: New findings. Molecules, 24: 1573.
Búfalo M.C., Figueiredo A.S., de Sousa J.P., Candeias J.M., Bastos J.K., Sforcin J.M. (2009): Anti-poliovirus activity of Baccharis dracunculifolia and propolis by cell viability determination and real-time PCR. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 107: 1669–1680.
Bulet P., Stocklin R. (2005): Insect antimicrobial peptides: Structures, properties and gene regulation. Protein and Peptide Letters, 12: 3–11.
Bulgasem Y., Bulgasem M., Nizam L., Zaiton H., Wan M., Wan Y., Sumaya G.F. (2016): Antifungal activity of lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from natural honey against pathogenic Candida species. Mycobiology, 44: 302–309.
Candiracci M., Citterio B., Diamantini G., Blasa M., Accorsi A., Piatti E. (2011): Honey flavonoids, natural antifungal agents against Candida albicans. International Journal of Food Properties, 14: 799–808.
Castro-Vázquez L.M., Díaz-Maroto M.C., Guchu E., Pérez-Coello M.S. (2006): Analysis of volatile compounds of eucalypt honey by solid phase extraction followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. European Food Research and Technology, 224: 27–31.
Castro-Vázquez L., Díaz-Maroto M.C., González-Viñas M.A., Pérez-Coelloet M.S. (2009): Differentiation of monofloral citrus, rosemary, eucalyptus, lavender, thyme and heather honeys based on volatile composition and sensory descriptive analysis. Food Chemistry, 112: 1022–1030.
Cavanagh D., Beazley J., Ostapowicz F. (1970): Radical operation for carcinoma of the vulva. A new approach to wound healing. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the British Commonwealth, 77: 1037–1040.
Chang X., Wang J., Yang S., Chen S., Songet Y. (2011): Antioxidative, antibrowning and antibacterial activities of sixteen floral honeys. Food and Function, 2: 541–546.
Charyasriwong S., Watanabe K., Rahmasari R., Matsunaga A., Haruyama T., Kobayashi N. (2015): In vitro evaluation of synergistic inhibitory effects of neuraminidase inhibitors and methylglyoxal against influenza virus infection. Archives of Medical Research, 46: 8–16.
Chemspider (2022): Database of Chemical Structures. [Dataset]. Royal Society of Chemistry, ChemSpider: The Free Chemical Database. Available at (accessed May 27, 2022).
Chen L., Mehta A., Berenbaum M., Zangerl A.R., Engeseth N.J. (2000): Honeys from different floral sources as inhibitors of enzymatic browning in fruit and vegetable homogenates. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48: 4997–5000.
Chua L.S., Lee J.Y., Chan G.F. (2015): Characterization of the proteins in honey. Analytical Letters, 48: 697–709.
Cimpoiu C., Hosu A., Miclaus V., Puscas A. (2013): Determination of the floral origin of some Romanian honeys on the basis of physical and biochemical properties. Spectrochimica Acta, Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 100: 149–154.
Cooke J., Dryden M., Patton T., Brennan J., Barrett J. (2015): The antimicrobial activity of prototype modified honeys that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydrogen peroxide. BMC Research Notes, 8: 20.
Cooper R., Jenkins L., Hooper S. (2014): Inhibition of biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Medihoney in vitro. Journal of Wound Care, 23: 93–104.
Cortopassi-Laurino M., Gelli D.S. (1991): Pollen analysis, physico-chemical properties and antibacterial action of honeys from Africanized bees Apis mellifera and Meliponines from Brazil (Analyse pollinique, propriétés physico-chimiques et action antibactérienne des miels d'abeilles africanisées Apis mellifera et de Méliponinés du Brésil). Apidologie, 22: 61–73. (in French)
Couquet Y., Alexis D., Rigal M.L. (2013): The antibacterial and healing properties of honey (Les propriétés antibactériennes et cicatrisantes du miel). Actualités Pharmaceutiques, 52: 22–25. (in French)
Da Silva P.M., Gauche C., Gonzaga L.V., Costa A.C.O., Fett R. (2016): Honey: Chemical composition, stability and authenticity. Food Chemistry, 196: 309–323.
Dai J., Mumper R.J. (2010): Plant phenolics: Extraction, analysis and their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Molecules, 15: 7313–7352.
Daniels B.J., Prijic G., Meidinger S., Loomes K.M., Stephens J.M., Schlothauer R.C., Furkert D.P., Brimble M.A. (2016): Isolation, structural elucidation, and synthesis of lepteridine from Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honey. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 64: 5079–5084.
Danila C., Tamara Yuliett F.H., Francesca G., Jiaojiao Z., Johura A., Mattia P., Josè L.Q., Jesus S.G., Maurizio B. (2020). Effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Manuka honey. eFood, 1: 85–93.
De Vuyst L., Leroy F. (2007): Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria: Production, purification, and food applications. Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, 13: 194–199.
Desmouliere A., Bonte F., Couquet Y., Rigal M.L. (2013): Honey, which benefit in healing? (Le miel, quel intérêt en cicatrisation?). Actualités Pharmaceutiques, 52: 17–35. (in French)
Di Girolamo F., D'Amato A., Righetti P.G. (2012): Assessment of the floral origin of honey via proteomic tools. Journal of Proteomics, 75: 3688–3693.
Dimitrios S., Nikolaos S., Christina T., Stamatina P., Charalampos A., Alexandros N., Fani K., Soultana A.A., Konstantinos P., Demetrios A.S., Demetrios K., Dimitris M. (2018): Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of different types of honey derived from Mount Olympus in Greece. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 42: 726–734.
Djossou J.A., Tchobo F.P., Yédomonhan H., Alitonou A.G., Soumanou M.M. (2013): Evaluation of the physico-chemical characteristics of honey marketed in Cotonou (Evaluation des caractéristiques physico-chimiques des miels commercialisés à Cotonou). Tropicultura, 31: 163–169. (in French)
Donia M.S., Fricke W.F., Partensky F., Cox J., Elshahawi S.I., White J.R., Phillippy A.M., Schatz M.C., Piel J., Haygood M.G., Ravel J., Schmidt E.W. (2011): Complex microbiome underlying secondary and primary metabolism in the tunicate-Prochloron symbiosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA, 108: E1423–E1432.
Dortu C., Thonart P. (2009): The bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria: Characteristics and interests for the biopreservation of food products (Les bactériocines des bactéries lactiques: Caractéristiques et intérêts pour la bioconservation des produits alimentaires). Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment, 13: 143–154. (in French)
El Sohaimy S.A., Masry S.H.D., Shehata M.G. (2015): Physicochemical characteristics of honey from different origins. Annals of Agricultural Sciences, 60: 279–287.
El-Gendy M.M.A. (2010): In vitro, evaluation of medicinal activity of Egyptian honey from different floral sources as anticancer and antimycotic infective agents. Journal of Microbial and Biochemical Technology, 2: 118–123.
El-Malek F.F.A., Yousef A.S., El-assar S.A. (2017): Hydrogel film loaded with new formula from Manuka honey for treatment of chronic wound infections. Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance, 11: 171–176.
Eteraf-Oskouei T., Najafi M. (2013): Traditional and modern uses of natural honey in human diseases: A review. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, 16: 731–742.
Feás X., Estevinho L.M. (2011): A survey of the in vitro antifungal activity of heather (Erica sp.) organic honey. Journal of Medicinal Food, 14: 1284–1288.
Feknous N., Ouchene L.L., Boumendjel M., Mekhancha D.E., Boudida Y., Chettoum A., Boumendjel A., Messarah M. (2021): Local honey goat milk yoghurt production. Process and quality control. Food Science and Technology, 42: 1–10.
Fernandes L., Ribeiro H., Oliveira A., Sanches Silva A., Freitas A., Henriques M., Rodrigues M.E. (2020): Portuguese honeys as antimicrobial agents against Candida species. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, 11: 130–136.
Forsgren E., Olofsson T.C., Váasquez A., Fries I. (2010): Novel lactic acid bacteria inhibiting Paenibacillus larvae in honey bee larvae. Apidologie, 41: 99–108.
Frans T., Sias G., Itzhak G. (2001): The antifungal action of three South African honeys on Candida albicans. Apidologie, 32: 371–379.
Giovanni C., Filippo F., Matilde M., Simona S., Barbara T., Leonora A., Antonio F., Miroslava K. (2020): Antibacterial activity of honey samples from Ukraine. Veterinary Sciences, 7: 181.
Goetz P. (2009): Honey as a local disinfectant and wound healing treatment (Le miel comme traitement local désinfectant et cicatrisant des plaies). Phytothérapie, 7: 91–93. (in French)
Gradvol V., Atlaban N., Lenart L., Pavlović H. (2015): Microbiological quality and inhibitory potential of selected Croatian apiary honeys. Croatian Journal of Food Science and Technology, 7: 40–46.
Gupta R.K., Rybroeck W., Johan W.R. (2014). Beeking for Poverty Alleviation and Livelihood Security. Berlin, Germany, Springer: 114.
Guttentag A., Krishnakumar K., Cokcetin N., Hainsworth S., Harry E., Carter D. (2021): Inhibition of dermatophyte fungi by Australian jarrah honey. Pathogens, 10: 194.
Haderbache L., Annou S., Mohammedi A. (2020): Antimicrobial potential of Ziziphus and Euphorbia honeys harvested in semi-arid region of Algeria and their possible use in soft medicine. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, 9: 1114–1118.
Hannan A., Munir S., Arshad M.U., Bashir N. (2014): In vitro antimycobacterial activity of Pakistani beri honey using BACTEC MGIT 960. International Scholarly Research Notices, 2014: 490589.
Hananeh W.M., Ismail Z.B., Alshehabat M.A., Mahmoud A.A., Ali J.H. (2015). Effects of Sidr honey on second-intention healing of contaminated full-thickness skin wounds in healthy dogs. Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy, 59: 433–439.
Hasali N.H.M., Zamri A.I., Lani M.N., Mubarak A., Suhaili Z. (2015): Identification of lactic acid bacteria from Meliponine honey and their antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 9: 1–6.
Hashemipour M.A., Tavakolineghad Z., Arabzadeh S.A.M., Iranmanesh Z., Nassab S.A.H.G. (2014): Antiviral activities of honey, royal jelly, and acyclovir against HSV-1. Wounds, 26: 47–54.
Hegazi A.G., Al Guthami F.M., Al Gethami A.F., Allah F.M.A., Saleh A.A., Fouad E.A. (2017): Potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey. Veterinary World, 10: 233.
Hegazi Ahmed G., Al Guthami Faiz M., Al Gethami Ahmed F.M., Fouad Ehab A. (2020): Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of some Saudi Arabia honey products. Iranian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 14: 490–500.
Hern T.T., Rosliza A.R., Siew H.G., Ahmad S.H., Siti A., Hassan S., Amrah S., Kirnpal-Kaur B.S. (2009): The antibacterial properties of Malaysian tualang honey against wound and enteric microorganisms in comparison to Manuka honey. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 9: 34.
Homrani M., Dalache F., Bouzouina M., Nemiche S., Homrani A. (2019): Antibacterial activities of Algerian raw honeys and isolated Lactobacillus against Gram-negative bacteria. Advances in Bioresearch, 10: 31–39.
Hosny I., El-Ghani S.A., Nadir A.S. (2009): Nutrient composition and microbiological quality of three unifloral honeys with emphasis on processing of honey probiotic youghurt. Global Veterinaria, 3: 107–112.
Hussain M.B., Abdul H., Naeem A., Ghulam Q.F., Muhammad I., Sidrah S., Imtiaz A.Q. (2015): Pakistani honeys against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 15: 32.
Huttunen S., Riihinen K., Kauhanen J., Tikkanen-Kaukanen C. (2013): Antimicrobial activity of different Finnish monofloral honeys against human pathogenic bacteria. Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica, 121: 827–34.
Ibarguren C., Raya R.R., Apella M.C., Audisio M.C. (2010): Enterococcus faecium isolated from honey synthesized bacteriocin-like substances active against different Listeria monocytogenes strains. Journal of Microbiology, 48: 44–52.
Igado O., Omobowale T., Nottidge H. (2010): The effect of honey and vitamin C on the response of dogs to anti-rabies vaccination. Sahel Journal of Veterinary, 9: 32–37.
Ilyasov R.A., Gaifullina L.R., Saltykova E.S., Poskryakov A.V., Nikolenko A.G. (2012): Review of the expression of antimicrobial peptide defensin in honey bees Apis mellifera L. Journal of Apicultural Science, 56: 115–124.
Irish J., Blair S., Carter D.A. (2011): The antibacterial activity of honey derived from Australian flora. PLoS One, 6: e18229.
Irish J., Carter D.A., Shokohi T., Blair S.E. (2006): Honey has an antifungal effect against Candida species. Medical Mycology May, 44: 289–291.
Isla M.I., Craig A., Ordoñez R., Zampini C., Sayago J., Bedascarrasbure E., Alvarez A., Salomón V., Maldonado L. (2011): Physico chemical and bioactive properties of honeys from Northwestern Argentina. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 44: 1922–1930.
Jantakee K., Tragoolpua Y. (2015): Activities of different types of Thai honey on pathogenic bacteria causing skin diseases, tyrosinase enzyme and generating free radicals. Biological Research, 48: 4.
Khan R.U., Naz S., Abudabos A.M. (2017): Towards a better understanding of the therapeutic applications and corresponding mechanisms of action of honey. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 24: 27755–27766.
Kilty S.J., Duval M., Chan F.T., Ferris W., Slinger R. (2011): Methylglyoxal: (Active agent of Manuka honey) in vitro activity against bacterial biofilms. International Forum of Allergy and Rhinology, 1: 348–350.
Kıvrak Ş., Kıvrak Ì. (2017): Assessment of phenolic profile of Turkish honey. International Journal of Food Properties, 20: 864–876.
Klaenhammer T., Altermann E., Arigoni F., Bolotin A., Breidt F., Broadbent J., Cano R., Chaillou S., Deutscher J., Gasson M., van de Guchte M., Guzzo J., Hartke A., Hawkins T., Hols P., Hutkins R., Kleerebezem M., Kok J., Kuipers O., Lubbers M., Maguin E., McKay L., Mills D., Nauta A., Overbeek R., Pel H., Pridmore D., Saier M., van Sinderen D., Sorokin A., Steele J., O'Sullivan D., de Vos W., Weimer B., Zagorec M., Siezen R. (2002): Discovering lactic acid bacteria by genomics. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 82: 29–58.
Knight A. (2013): The therapeutic effects of honey. The Plymouth Student Scientist, 06: 375–385.
Küçük M., Kolayli S., Karaoğlu Ş., Ulusoy E., Baltaci C., Candan F. (2007): Biological activities and chemical composition of three honeys of different types from Anatolia. Food Chemistry, 100: 526–536.
Kurek-Górecka A., Górecki M., Rzepecka-Stojko A., Balwierz R., Stojko J. (2020): Bee products in dermatology and skin care. Molecules, 25: 556.
Kus P.M., Szweda P., Jerkovic I., Tuberoso C.I.G. (2016): Activity of Polish unifloral honeys against pathogenic bacteria and its correlation with colour, phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and other parameters. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 62: 269–276.
Kwakman P.H.S., te Velde A.A., de Boer L., Speijer D., Vandenbroucke-Grauls C.M.J.E., Zaat S.A.J. (2010): How honey kills bacteria. FASEB Journal, 24: 2576–2582.
Kwakman P.H.S., Zaat S.A.J. (2012): Antibacterial components of honey. IUBMB Life, 64: 48–55.
Lashani E., Davoodabadi A., Soltan D., Mohammad M. (2020): Some probiotic properties of Lactobacillus species isolated from honey and their antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens. Veterinary Research Forum, 11: 121–126.
Lashani E., Davoodabadi A., Soltan Dallal M.M. (2018): Antimicrobial effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus paracasei isolated from honey against Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Babol University of Medical Sciences, 20: 44–49.
Liu J.R., Ye Y.L., Lin T.Y., Wang Y.W., Peng C.C. (2013): Effect of floral sources on the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities of honeys in Taiwan. Food Chemistry, 1: 938–943.
Lu J., Turnbull L., Burke C.M., Liu M., Carter D.A., Schlothauer R.C., Whitchurch C.B., Harry E.J. (2014): Manuka-type honeys can eradicate biofilms produced by Staphylococcus aureus strains with different biofilm-forming abilities. PeerJ, 2: e326.
Lusby P.E., Coombes A., Wilkinson J.M. (2002): Honey: A potent agent for wound healing. Wound Ostomy Continence Nurses, 29: 295–300.
Lusby P.E., Coombes A.L., Wilkinson J.M. (2005): Bactericidal activity of different honeys against pathogenic bacteria. Archives of Medical Research, 36: 464–467.
Lyudmila B., Juliana I., Galina G., Borislav V., Rossen N., Ivan M. (2015): Honey and green/black tea consumption may reduce the risk of Helicobacter pylori infection. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 82: 85–86.
Maddocks S., Lopez M., Rowlands R., Cooper R. (2012): Manuka honey inhibits the development of Streptococcus pyogenes biofilms and causes reduced expression of two fibronectin binding proteins. Microbiology, 158: 781–790.
Maddocks S.E., Jenkins R.E. (2013): Honey: A sweet solution to the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance? Future Microbiology, 8: 1419–1429.
Madigan M., Martinko J., Bender K., Buckley D., Stahl D. (2015): Brock Biology of Microorganism. 14th Ed. Boston, US, Pearson: 1030.
Majtan J., Bohova J., Horniackova M., Klaudiny J., Majtan V. (2014): Anti-biofilm effects of honey against wound pathogens Proteus mirabilis and Enterobacter cloacae. Phytotherapy Research, 28: 69–75.
Mandal M.D., Mandal S. (2011): Honey: Its medicinal property and antibacterial activity. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedecine, 1: 154–60.
Mandrioli M., Bugli S., Saltini S., Genedani S., Ottaviani E. (2003): Molecular characterization of a defensin in the IZD-MB-0503 cell line derived from immunocytes of the insect Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera). Biology of the Cell, 95: 53–57.
Maria L.E., Afonso S.E., Xesús F. (2011): Antifungal effect of lavender honey against Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 48: 640–643.
Martinotti S., Ranzato E. (2018). Honey, wound repair and regenerative medicine. Journal of Functional Biomaterials, 9: 34.
Mathialagan M., Johnson Thangaraj Edward Y.S., David P.M.M., Senthilkumar M., Srinivasan M.R., Mohankumar S. (2018): Isolation, characterization and identification of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from honey bees. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 7: 894–906.
Matzen R.D., Leth-Espensen J.Z., Jansson T., Nielsen D.S., Lund M.N., Matzen S.H. (2018): The antibacterial effect in vitro of honey derived from various Danish flora. Dermatology Research and Practice, 2018: 7021713.
Mavric E., Wittmann S., Barth G., Henle T. (2008): Identification and quantification of methylglyoxal as the dominant antibacterial constituent of Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honeys from New Zealand. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 52: 483–489.
Mbogning E., Tchoumboue J., Damesse F., Sanou Sobze M., Canini A. (2011): Physico-chemical characteristics of honeys from the Sudano-Guinean zone of the West and Adamaoua Cameroon (Caractéristiques physico-chimiques des miels de la zone Soudano-guinéenne de l'Ouest et de l'Adamaoua Cameroun). Tropicultura, 29: 168–175. (in French)
Mc Loone P., Warnock M., Fyfe L. (2016): Honey: A realistic antimicrobial for disorders of the skin. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, 49: 161–167.
Mohammed S.E.A., Kabbashi A.S., Koko W.S., Rana R.M., Adgaba N., Ghamdi A.A. (2017): In vitro activity of some natural honeys against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia trophozoites. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 26: 238–243.
Molan P.C. (1992): The antibacterial activity of honey: 1. The nature of the antibacterial activity. Bee World, 73: 5–28.
Montenegro G., Mejıas E. (2013): Biological applications of honeys produced by Apis mellifera. Biological Research, 46: 341–345.
Moody M.N., Landau J.M., Goldberg L.H., Marquez D., Vergilis-Kalner I.J. (2011): 595 nm long pulsed dye laser with a hydrocolloid dressing for the treatment of hypergranulation tissue on the scalp in postsurgical defects. Dermatology Online Journal, 17: 2.
Moussa D., Noureddine H.S., Mohamed M., Abdelmelek, Saad A. (2012): Antibacterial activity of various honey types of Algeria against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 5: 773–776.
Mulu A., Diro E., Tekleselassie H., Belyhun Y., Anagaw B., Alemayehu M., Gelaw A., Biadglegne F., Desalegn K., Yifiru S., Tiruneh M., Kassu A., Nishikawa T., Isogai E. (2010): Effect of Ethiopian multiflora honey on fluconazole-resistant Candida species isolated from the oral cavity of AIDS patients. International Journal of STD and AIDS, 21: 741–745.
Ng W.J., Lim M.S. (2015): Antistaphylococcal activity of melaleuca honey. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 46: 472–479.
Nolan V.C., Harrison J., Cox J.A.G. (2019): Dissecting the antimicrobial composition of honey. Antibiotics, 8: 251.
Obaseiki-Ebor E.E., Afonya T.C.A. (1984): In vitro evaluation of the anticandidiasis activity of honey distillate (HY-1) compared with that of some antimycotic agents. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 36: 283–284.
Olaitan P.B., Adeleke O.E., Ola I.O. (2007): Honey: A reservoir for microorganisms and an inhibitory agent for microbes. African Health Sciences, 7: 159–165.
Olofsson T.C., Butler È., Markowicz P., Lindholm C., Larsson L., Vásquez A. (2016): Lactic acid bacterial symbionts in honeybees – An unknown key to honey's antimicrobial and therapeutic activities. International Wound Journal, 13: 668–679.
Olofsson T.C., Vásquez A. (2008): Detection and identification of a novel lactic acid bacterial flora within the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. Current Microbiology, 57: 356–563.
Oluwapelumi O.B., Morayo A., Buru A.S., Richard A.Y., Funmilayo A.J., Funmi A.A. (2017): Antimicrobial activities of different honeys sold in Ado-Ekiti on bacteria associated with upper respiratory tract infections. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 6: 1–10.
Osmojasola P.F. (2002): The antibacterial effect of honey on bacteria isolated from infected wound in Ilorin, Nigeria. Nigerian Society for Experimental Biology, 2: 109–112.
Peña R.M., Barciela J., Herrero C., García-Martín S. (2004): Solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of monoterpenes in honeys. Journal of Separation Science, 27: 1540–1544.
Piotr S. (2017): Antimicrobial activity of honey. In: Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo (ed.): Honey Analysis. London, United Kingdom, IntechOpen: 215–232.
Proaño A., Coello D., Villacrés-Granda I., Ballesteros I., Debut A., Vizuete K., Brenciani A., Álvarez-Suarez J.M. (2021): The osmotic action of sugar combined with hydrogen peroxide and bee-derived antibacterial peptide Defensin-1 is crucial for the antibiofilm activity of eucalyptus honey. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft and Technologie, 136: 110379.
PubChem (2022): Human Defensin NP1 (Compound). PubChem, National Institutes of Health (NIH). Available at (accessed May, 2022).
Rabie E., Serem J.C., Oberholzer H.M., Gaspar A.R.M., Bester M.J. (2016): How methylgyloxal kills bacteria: An ultrastructural study. Ultrastructural Pathology, 40: 107–111.
Rafael V., Flavia Z., Gloria M., Ady G. (2021): Bioactive compounds in Apis mellifera monofloral honeys. Journal of Food Science, 86: 1552–1582.
Rani G.N., Budumuru R., Bandaru N.R. (2017): Antimicrobial activity of honey with special reference to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 11: DC05–DC08.
Samarghandian S., Farkhondeh T., Samini F. (2017): Honey and health: A review of recent clinical research. Pharmacognosy Research, 9: 121–127.
Sampath Kumar K.P., Bhowmik D., Chiranjib B., Chandira M.R. (2010): Medicinal uses and health benefits of honey: An overview. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2: 385–395.
Sanz M.L., Polemis N., Morales V., Corzo N., Drakoularakou A., Gibson G.R., Rastall R.A. (2005): In vitro investigation into the potential prebiotic activity of honey oligosaccharides. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53: 2914–2921.
Šedík P., Pocol C.B., Horská E., Fiore M. (2019): Honey: Food or medicine? A comparative study between Slovakia and Romania. British Food Journal, 121: 1281–1297.
Semprini A., Singer J., Braithwaite I., Shortt N., Thayabaran D., Mc Connell M., Weatherall M., Beasley R. (2018): Kanuka honey versus aciclovir for the topical treatment of herpes simplex labialis: A randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open, 9: e026201.
Shenoy V.P., Ballal M., Shivananda P., Bairy I. (2012): Honey as an antimicrobial agent against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from infected wounds. Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, 4: 102–105.
Sherlock O., Dolan A., Athman R., Power A., Gethin G., Cowman S., Humphreys H. (2010): Comparison of the antimicrobial activity of Ulmo honey from Chile and Manuka honey against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 10: 47.
Sojka M., Valachova I., Bucekova M., Majtan J. (2016): Antibiofilm efficacy of honey and bee-derived defensin-1 on multispecies wound biofilm. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 65: 337–344.
Soroy L., Bagus S., Yongkie I.P., Djoko W. (2014): The effect of a unique propolis compound (Propoelix™) on clinical outcomes in patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever. Infection and Drug Resistance, 7: 323–329.
Sowa P., Grabek-Lejko D., Wesołowska M., Swacha S., Zugan M.D. (2017): Hydrogen peroxide-dependent antibacterial action of Melilotus albus honey. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 65: 82–89.
Temaru E., Shimura S., Amano K., Karasama T. (2007): Antimicrobial activity of honey from stingless honeybees (Hymenopetra Apidae; Meliponinae). Polish Journal of Microbiology, 56: 281–285.
Udwary D.W., Gontang E.A., Jones A.C., Jones C.S., Schultz A.W., Winter J.M., Yang J.Y., Beauchemin N., Capson T.L., Clark B.R., Esquenazi E., Eustáquio A.S., Freel K., Gerwick L., Gerwick W.H., Gonzalez D., Liu W.T., Malloy K.L., Maloney K.N., Nett M., Nunnery J.K., Penn K., Prieto-Davo A., Simmons T.L., Weitz S., Wilson M.C., Tisa L.S., Dorrestein P.C., Moore B.S. (2011): Significant natural product biosynthetic potential of actinorhizal symbionts of the genus Frankia, as revealed by comparative genomic and proteomic analyses. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77: 3617–3625.
Vásquez A., Forsgren E., Fries I., Paxton R.J., Flaberg E., Szekely L., Olofsson T.C. (2012): Symbionts as major modulators of insect health: Lactic acid bacteria and honeybees. PLoS One, 7: e33188.
Voidarou C., Alexopoulos A., Plessas S., Karapanou A., Mantzourani I., Stavropoulou E., Fotou K., Tzora A., Skoufos I., Bezirtzoglou E. (2011): Antibacterial activity of different honeys against pathogenic bacteria. Anaerobe, 17: 375–379.
Waheed M., Hussain M.B., Javed A., Mushtaq Z., Hassan S., Shariati M.A., Khan M.U., Majeed M., Nigam M., Mishra A.P., Heydari M. (2018): Honey and cancer: A mechanistic review. Clinical Nutrition, 38: 2499–2503.
Watanabe K., Rahmasari R., Matsunaga A., Haruyama T., Kobayashi N. (2014): Anti-influenza viral effects of honey in vitro: Potent high activity of Manuka honey. Archives of Medical Research, 45: 359–365.
download PDF

© 2022 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti