Detection of adulteration in freshly squeezed orange juice by electronic nose and infrared spectroscopy
F. Shen, Q. Wu, A. Su, P. Tang, X. Shao, B. Liuhttps://doi.org/10.17221/303/2015-CJFSCitation:Shen F., Wu Q., Su A., Tang P., Shao X., Liu B. (2016): Detection of adulteration in freshly squeezed orange juice by electronic nose and infrared spectroscopy. Czech J. Food Sci., 34: 224-232.
The use of electronic nose and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) as rapid tools for detection of orange juice adulteration has been preliminarily investigated and compared. Freshly squeezed orange juices were tentatively adulterated with 100% concentrated orange juices at levels ranging from 0% to 30% (v/v). Then the E-nose response signals and FTIR spectra collected from samples were subjected to multivariate analysis by principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). PCA indicated that authentic juices and adulterated ones could be approximately separated. For the classification of samples with different adulteration levels, the overall accuracy obtained by LDA in prediction was 91.7 and 87.5% for E-nose and ATR-FTIR, respectively. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) results verified that there existed an obvious holistic difference in flavour characteristics between fresh squeezed and concentrated juices. These results demonstrated that both E-nose and FTIR might be used as rapid screening techniques for the detection of this type of juice adulteration.Keywords:
chemometrics; discrimination; spectral analysis; volatile compoundsReferences:
Bai J., Baldwin E., Plotto A., Cameron R., Ford B.L., Luzio G., Manthey J., Narciso J., Dea S. (2010): A comparison of processed and fresh squeezed ‘Hamlin’ orange juice – nutrients and phytonutrients. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 123: 207–212.Beullens Katrien, Kirsanov Dmitriy, Irudayaraj Joseph, Rudnitskaya Alisa, Legin Andrey, Nicolaï Bart M., Lammertyn Jeroen (2006): The electronic tongue and ATR–FTIR for rapid detection of sugars and acids in tomatoes. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 116, 107-115 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2005.11.084Bleibaum Rebecca N, Stone Herbert, Tan Tsung, Labreche Said, Saint-Martin Emmanuelle, Isz Sandrine (2002): Comparison of sensory and consumer results with electronic nose and tongue sensors for apple juices. Food Quality and Preference, 13, 409-422 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0950-3293(02)00017-4Di Egidio Valentina, Sinelli Nicoletta, Limbo Sara, Torri Luisa, Franzetti Laura, Casiraghi Ernestina (2009): Evaluation of shelf-life of fresh-cut pineapple using FT-NIR and FT-IR spectroscopy. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 54, 87-92 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2009.06.006Gómez-Ariza J.L., Villegas-Portero M.J., Bernal-Daza V. (2005): Characterization and analysis of amino acids in orange juice by HPLC–MS/MS for authenticity assessment. Analytica Chimica Acta, 540, 221-230 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2004.08.048Guyon Francois, Gaillard Laetitia, Brault Audrey, Gaultier Nicolas, Salagoïty Marie-Hélène, Médina Bernard (2013): Potential of ion chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry via a liquid interface for beverages authentication. Journal of Chromatography A, 1322, 62-68 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2013.10.088Faria M.A., Magalhães A., Nunes M.E., Oliveira M.B.P.P. (2013): High resolution melting of trnL amplicons in fruit juices authentication. Food Control, 33, 136-141 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.02.020Ferreira D.S., Galão O.F., Pallone J.A.L., Poppi R.J. (2014): Comparison and application of near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy for determination of quality parameters in soybean samples. Food Control, 35, 227-232 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.07.010Haddi Z., Mabrouk S., Bougrini M., Tahri K., Sghaier K., Barhoumi H., El Bari N., Maaref A., Jaffrezic-Renault N., Bouchikhi B. (2014): E-Nose and e-Tongue combination for improved recognition of fruit juice samples. Food Chemistry, 150, 246-253 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.10.105Hartyáni Piroska, Dalmadi István, Knorr Dietrich (2013): Electronic nose investigation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris inoculated apple and orange juice treated by high hydrostatic pressure. Food Control, 32, 262-269 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.10.035Hong Xuezhen, Wang Jun (2014): Detection of adulteration in cherry tomato juices based on electronic nose and tongue: Comparison of different data fusion approaches. Journal of Food Engineering, 126, 89-97 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2013.11.008Huang Lingxia, Liu Hongru, Zhang Bo, Wu Di (2015): Application of Electronic Nose with Multivariate Analysis and Sensor Selection for Botanical Origin Identification and Quality Determination of Honey. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 8, 359-370 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-014-1407-6Guohua Hui, Yuling Wu, Dandan Ye, Wenwen Ding, Linshan Zhu, Lvye Wang (2012): Study of peach freshness predictive method based on electronic nose. Food Control, 28, 25-32 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.04.025Johnson J.D., Vora J.D. (1983): Natural citrus essences. Food Technology, 37: 92–93, 97.JOHNSON J.R., BRADDOCK R.J., CHEN C.S. (1996): Flavor Losses in Orange Juice during Ultrafiltration and Subsequent Evaporation. Journal of Food Science, 61, 540-543 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1996.tb13152.xKrálová M., Procházková Z., Svobodová V., Mařicová E., Janštová B., Vorlová L. (2014): Rapid discriminant analysis of olomouc curd cheese by Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 32: 31–36.Lee Hyoung S., Coates Gary A. (2003): Effect of thermal pasteurization on Valencia orange juice color and pigments. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 36, 153-156 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(02)00087-7Liu L., Cozzolino D., Cynkar W. U., Gishen M., Colby C. B. (2006): Geographic Classification of Spanish and Australian Tempranillo Red Wines by Visible and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Combined with Multivariate Analysis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54, 6754-6759 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf061528bMamat Mazlina, Samad Salina Abdul, Hannan Mahammad (2011): An Electronic Nose for Reliable Measurement and Correct Classification of Beverages. Sensors, 11, 6435-6453 https://doi.org/10.3390/s110606435Manning Louise, Soon Jan Mei (2014): Developing systems to control food adulteration. Food Policy, 49, 23-32 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2014.06.005Nisperos-Carriedo Myrna O., Shaw Philip E. (1990): Comparison of volatile flavor components in fresh and processed orange juices. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 38, 1048-1052 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00094a029Reinhard Hans, Sager Fritz, Zoller Otmar (2008): Citrus juice classification by SPME-GC-MS and electronic nose measurements. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 41, 1906-1912 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2007.11.012Pierce K., Mottram D.S., Baigrie B.D. (1996): The effect of processing on the chiral aroma compounds in cherries (Prunus avium L.). Chemical Markers for Processed and Stored Foods, 631: 70–79.Saavedra L, Garcı́a A, Barbas C (2000): Development and validation of a capillary electrophoresis method for direct measurement of isocitric, citric, tartaric and malic acids as adulteration markers in orange juice. Journal of Chromatography A, 881, 395-401 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00258-2Sánchez María-Teresa, Torres Irina, De la Haba María-José, Pérez-Marín Dolores (2014): First steps to predicting pulp colour in whole melons using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Biosystems Engineering, 123, 12-18 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2014.04.010Shen Fei, Ying Yibin, Li Bobin, Zheng Yunfeng, Hu Jiangang (2011): Prediction of sugars and acids in Chinese rice wine by mid-infrared spectroscopy. Food Research International, 44, 1521-1527 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.03.058Shiroma Cecilia, Rodriguez-Saona Luis (2009): Application of NIR and MIR spectroscopy in quality control of potato chips. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 22, 596-605 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2008.09.003Sinelli Nicoletta, Casiraghi Ernestina, Barzaghi Stefania, Brambilla Ada, Giovanelli Gabriella (2011): Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring blueberry osmo–air dehydration process. Food Research International, 44, 1427-1433 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.02.046Stoppacher Norbert, Kluger Bernhard, Zeilinger Susanne, Krska Rudolf, Schuhmacher Rainer (2010): Identification and profiling of volatile metabolites of the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma atroviride by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 81, 187-193 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2010.03.011Tena Noelia, Aparicio-Ruiz Ramón, García-González Diego L. (2013): Time Course Analysis of Fractionated Thermoxidized Virgin Olive Oil by FTIR Spectroscopy. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61, 3212-3218 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf305422dTrirongjitmoah Suchin, Juengmunkong Zongporn, Srikulnath Kornsorn, Somboon Pakpum (2015): Classification of garlic cultivars using an electronic nose. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 113, 148-153 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2015.02.007Twomey Michael, Downey Gerard, McNulty Paul B (1995): The potential of NIR spectroscopy for the detection of the adulteration of orange juice. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 67, 77-84 https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740670113Velázquez-Estrada R.M., Hernández-Herrero M.M., Rüfer C.E., Guamis-López B., Roig-Sagués A.X. (2013): Influence of ultra high pressure homogenization processing on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of orange juice. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 18: 89–94.L. J. Xie , Y. B. Ying , M. L. Chen , T. J. Ying (2010): Detection of Transgenic Tomato Leaf with LeETR1 Antisense Gene by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Transactions of the ASABE, 53, 313-318 https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.29483Yu Haiyan, Ying Yibin, Fu Xiaping, Lu Huishan (2006): Quality determination of Chinese rice wine based on Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy. Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy, 14, 37- https://doi.org/10.1255/jnirs.584